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Arapça - Menşe - Kelime

Andras Rajki's

A. E. D.

Arabic Etymological Dictionary

2002


A Edit

a : is it?

a‘adda : prepare [‘adda]

ab : August [Akk abu, Heb av] Per ab

ab : father [Sem ’-b, Heb av, Akk abu, Syr aba, BAram ’b, Hrs hhayb, Meh hhayb, Amh abat, Tig ab, Uga ab, Phoen ’b]

aba : refuse [Sem ’-b-y]

abad : eternity [abbada] Ind abad, Per abad borrowed from Ar

abada : flee [Sem ’-b-d, Akk abatu (destroy) Heb ibbed (lose), Syr ebd (perish), BAram ’bd, Uga ’bd, Phoen ’bd]

abadi : eternal [abbada] Aze ebedi, Ful abada, Per abadi, Tur ebedi, Uzb abadiy borrowed from Ar

abaqa : flee [OS abiq]

abbada : make eternal [?]

abbana : praise the dead [?]

abda : show [?]

abhama : be dark [?]

abjad : alphabet [from the first four letters of the Arabic alphabet (a, b, j, d)] Per abjad borrowed from Ar

abkam : dumb [bakima] Per abkam borrowed from Ar

ablagha : hand over, announce [balagha]

ablaq : checkered, black-and-white [Ara blq (whote)]

abna : sons [tabanna] Per abna borrowed from Ar

abnus : ebony [from Gre ebenos from OEg habni from Nubian] Alb abanoz, Bul abanos, Gre ampanozi, Hin abnus, Ind abnus, Per abnus, Rom abanos, Tur abanoz borrowed from Ar

abril : April [from Lat aprilis]

absala : cook unripe dates [Sem b-sh-l, Akk bashalu (be cooked, ripe), Heb hivshil (cook), Syr bashel, JNA bshl, Soq behel (be cooked), Amh besele, Uga bshl]

abssara : see, notice [bassura]

abu : father [ab] Per abu borrowed from Ar

abyasz : white [basza] Tur beyaz, Ind abiad, Per abyasz, Tur beyaz borrowed from Ar

acchara : put off, delay [Sem ’-ch-r, Mal iehor (other), l-ahhar (last), Akk acharu (be behind), Heb acher (behind; other), acharon (last), Syr achrena (other), achraya (last), JNA ’khr (be late), khena (other), kharaya (last), BAram ’chry (another), Uga ’chr (restrain, delay), Phoen ’hhr, ’chr (behind)]

ach : brother [Sem ’-ch, Mal hu, Akk achu, Heb ach, Syr acha, BAram ’ch, Tig hhu, Uga ach, Phoen ’ch] Per ach borrowed from Ar

achadha : take [Sem ’-ch-dh, Akk achazu, Heb achaz, Syr echad, Uga ’chd]

achar : other [acchara] Per achar borrowed from Ar

achbar : news [chabbara] Ind akhbar, Per achbar borrowed from Ar

achbara : announce [chabbara]

achfash : day-blind [chunfus]

achir : end; last [acchara] Ind akhir, Per acher borrowed from Ar

achira : next world [acchara] Ful alahira, Hau lahira, Ind akhirat, Per acherat, Swa ahera borrowed from Ar

achissai : specialist [chassa]

achlala : disturb [?]

achlaq : morals [chulq] Aze exlaq, Per achlaq, Tat ekhlak, Tur ahlak borrowed from Ar

achram : perforated-nosed [charama]

achszar : green [chaszira] Per achszar borrowed from Ar

achttara : notify [chattara]

a‘da : multiply; repeat [‘adda]

adab : good manners, politeness; moral; respect [aduba] Hau ladabi, Hin adab, Ind adab, Per adab, Swa adabu, Tat edep borrowed from Ar

adaba : invite to a feast [?]

adabi : literary [aduba] Per adabi, Tur edebi borrowed from Ar

adabia : literature [aduba] Aze edebiyyat, Per adabiyat, Tur edebiyat borrowed from Ar

adam : man, human, person [Sem ’-d-m, Heb adam, Tig addam, Uga adm, Phoen ’dm] Aze adam, Ful adama, Hin adam, Ind adam, Kyr adam, Per adam, Tur adam, Uzb odam borrowed from Ar

adam : skin [OS adam]

a‘dama : destroy [‘adima]

adara : turn [dara]

adat : tool [?] Per adat borrowed from Ar

adchala : lead inside [dachala]

adda : conduct [?]

addaba : educate [aduba]

addhana : call to prayer [adhina]

adha : damage; disturb [adhia] Per adha borrowed from Ar

adham : black [Akk damu (dark)]

adhan : call to prayer [adhina] Hin azan, Ind azan, Per adhan, Swa adhana, Tur ezan borrowed from Ar

adhan : trouble [adhia] Swa adha borrowed from Ar

adhana : call to prayer [adhina] Swa adhini borrowed from Ar

adhar : March [Akk adaru, Heb adar] Per adhar borrowed from Ar

adhia : suffer damage [?]

adhia : torment, torture [adhia] Aze eziyyet, Per adhiyat, Tur eziyet borrowed from Ar

adhina : hear [Sem ’-dh-n, EgAr widan (ear), LiAr dan, Mal widna, Akk uznu, Heb ozen, Syr edana, Hrs hheydhen, Tig ezen, Uga udn, idn (permit)]

adib : literate; author [adab] Ind adib, Per adib, Tur edip borrowed from Ar

adla : utter [?]

admana : be addicted [?]

adraka : catch up with [Sem d-r-k, Heb derekh (road), darakh (tread), Syr adarek, Amh medrek (stage), Uga drk (tread), Phoen drk (road)]

aduba : be literate [?]

adwara : control, direct [dara]

adzhara : show [dzahara]

afa : misfortune, calamity [?] Hin afat, Per afat, Swa afa borrowed from Ar

afada : be useful [Sem p-y-d, Uga pwd, pyd (be used)]

af‘an : viper [Sem ’-p-‘, Mal lifgha, Heb efe‘a, Ara ’p‘, Hrr hhiffiny, Amh effunnyet, Tig af‘ot, Uga ap‘] Per af‘i borrowed from Ar

afaka : tell a lie [Sem h-p-k, Akk abaku (overturn), Heb hafakh (turn), Syr hefak, Uga hpk, Phoen hpk]

afala : go down [Akk apalu (be late), Heb afela (dark)]

afandi : sir [from Gre authentes] Per afandi, Tat efende, Tur efendi borrowed from Ar

afkar : thoughts, ideas, opinions [fakkara] Per afkar, Tur efkar borrowed from Ar

afsada : spoil [Heb hifssid (lose)]

afssahha : explain [fassuhha]

afszal : better [faszala] Ind afzal, Per afszal borrowed from Ar

afta : authorize; advise [Sem p-t-w, Hrs afto (decide on a plan), Gez ftw]

afttara : have breakfast [fattara]

afyun : opium [from Gre opion] Alb afion, Gre afioni, Ind apyun, Kyr apiyim, Per afyun, Swa afyuni borrowed from Ar

aghara : invade, attack [ghara]

aghatha : help [?]

aghfala : neglect [ghafala]

aghlab : most of [ghalaba] Per aghlab borrowed from Ar

aghlaqa : conclude [ghalaqa]

aghra : attract [ghara]

aghszaba : tease, make angry [ghasziba]

aghusttus : August [from Lat augustus]

ahala : marry [Heb ohel (tent), Uga ahl (residence)]

ahala : qualify [?]

ahammia : importance, significance [hamma] Aze ehemiyyet, Hin ahmiyat, Per ahammiyat, Tat ehemiyat, Tur ehemmiyet borrowed from Ar

ahana : insult [hana]

ahda : exchange gifts [hadia]

ahhabba : love [hhabba]

ahhad : one [wahhada] Per ahhad borrowed from Ar

Ahhad : Sunday [wahhada] Ful alad, Ind Ahad borrowed from Ar

ahhkama : make strong, fortify [?]

ahhmaq : foolish [hhamiqa] Per ahhmaq borrowed from Ar

ahhmar : red [hhammara] Ind ahmar, Per ahhmar borrowed from Ar

ahhnaka : experience sg, go through sg [Sem hh-n-k, Heb chinnekh (educate), Gez hhanaka (perceive)]

ahhsan : better, nicer [hhasan] Per ahhsan borrowed from Ar

ahhsana : do good [hhasan]

ahhszara : bring; prepare [hhaszara]

ahhtaja : need [Sem hh-g-y, Mal htieja (need)]

ahhwal : conditions, state of affairs, situation [hhal] Aze ehval, Ind ahwal, Per ahhwal, Tur ahval borrowed from Ar

ahhwar : black-and-white (eyes) [hhara]

ahhyanan : from time to time [hhin]

ahl : able, capable [ahala] Per ahl, Tur ehil borrowed from Ar

ahl : kinfolk [ahala] Per ahl borrowed from Ar

ahmala : neglect [?]

ai : that is [ayy]

ail : mountain goat [Sem ’-y-l, Akk alu (ram), ayyalu (deer), Heb ayal (mountain goat), ail (ram), Uga il, ayl (deer), Phoen ’yl (buck)]

ailul : September [Sem hh-l-l, Akk elulu, Heb elul, Syr eylul] Per eilul, Tur eylul borrowed from Ar

aiman : right [yamana]

aina : who [ayy]

aiqadza : wake up [yaqidza]

aisar : left [yasar] Per eysar borrowed from Ar

aisara : be rich [Sem ‘-th-r, Heb ‘ashir (rich), Syr ‘athir, JNA atira]

aiszan : also [?] Per eyszan borrowed from Ar

ajaba : answer [jawab]

a‘jaba : please [EgAr a‘gab]

ajal : hour of death, fate; deadline [Ara ’gl (gate)] Hau ajali, Per ajal, Swa ajali, Tur ecel borrowed from Ar

a‘jam : speaking a non-Arab language [‘ajam] Per a‘jam borrowed from Ar

ajara : hire, reward [Sem ’-g-r, Akk agaru (hire), Heb agora (a coin), Syr agra (pay), JNA a’ra (reward, pay), Uga ’gr] Swa ajiri

ajash : hoarse [Heb gass (rough)]

ajdad : ancestors [jadd] Aze ecdad, Per ajdad, Tur ecdat borrowed from Ar

ajhar : suffering in nyctalopia, night-blind [jahar]

ajjada : be useful [?]

ajlaf : villain [jilf] Aze eclaf, Per ajlaf borrowed from Ar

ajlahh : bald [jalihha]

ajli : sake [?] Swa ajili borrowed from Ar

ajnabi : foreigner [janb] Aze ecnebi, Per ajnabi, Tur ecnebi borrowed from Ar

ajnas : sorts, types [jins] Per ajnas borrowed from Ar

ajr : reward [ajara] Per ajr borrowed from Ar

ajra : implement [?]

ajram : bodies [jirm] Per ajram borrowed from Ar

ajsam : bodies [jasuma] Per ajsam borrowed from Ar

ajur : brick [Akk agurru, JNA ajurra] Per ajor borrowed from Ar

akala : eat [Sem ’-k-l, Mal kiel, Akk akalu, Heb akhal, Syr ekal, JNA ’khl, BAram ’kl, Amh ehel (cereal), Uga ’kl (eat), Phoen ’kl]

akama : hill [OS ekam] Per akame borrowed from Ar

akbar : greatest [kabura] Ind akbar, Per akbar borrowed from Ar

akid : sure [wakkada] Per akid borrowed from Ar

akkar : farmer [from Sum engar]

akl : food [akala] Per akl borrowed from Ar

akmal : complete [kamala] Per akmal borrowed from Ar

akthar : more [kathara] Per akthar, Tur ekser borrowed from Ar

aktharia : majority [kathara] Aze ekseriyyet, Per akthariyat, Tur ekseriyet borrowed from Ar

al : the [Sem ’-l, Mal il, Heb ele (these)] Ind al borrowed from Ar

al : family [Ara ’l] Per al borrowed from Ar

ala : cease [OS Vl]

ala : tool [?] Ind alat, Per alat, Swa ala, Ser alat, Tur alet borrowed from Ar

a‘la : higher [‘ala] Aze ela, Per a‘la borrowed from Ar

a‘la : provide a family [‘ala]

alaka : send [laka]

alam : pain, sorrow [alima] Per alam, Tur elem borrowed from Ar

a‘lama : inform [‘alama]

alamma : be familiar [?]

al-an : now [al + an] Per al-an borrowed from Ar

a‘lana : make known [‘alana]

al-barihha : yesterday [al + barihha]

albasa : clothes [labisa] Per albese, Tur elbise borrowed from Ar

al-bata : certainly, surely, of course [al + bata] Aze elbette, Kyr alvette, Per albate, Taj albatta, Tur elbette borrowed from Ar

alf : thousand [Sem ’-l-p, Mal elf, Heb elef, Syr alfa, JNA alpa, BAram ’lp, Amh elf (myriad), Uga alp (thousand), Phoen ’lp] Hau alif, Ind alf, alaf, Per alf, Swa elfu borrowed from Ar

alia : tail fat [Sem ’-l-y, JNA ulitha]

alif : the letter a [Sem ’-l-p (ox), Heb alef] Ind alif, Per alef borrowed from Ar

alif : trusted, tame; friend [alifa] Per alif borrowed from Ar

alifa : be trusted, accustomed, tame [Sem ’-l-p, Heb illef (train), Syr alef (teach), yilef (learn), JNA lyp]

alifba : alphabet [alif + ba] Aze elifba, Per alefba borrowed from Ar

alima : feel pain [Sem ’-l-m, Heb illem (dumb)]

alla : unless [Heb ela (but)]

alladhi : that there [al + dha]

allafa : compile [alifa]

Allah : God [ilah] Hin Allah, Ind Allah, Per Allah, Swa Allah, Tur Allah borrowed from Ar

almas : diamond [from Gre adamas] Bul elmaz, Ind almas, Kyr almaz, Per almas, Rus almaz, Swa almasi, Tat almaz, Tur elmas borrowed from Ar

alqa : throw [laqia]

am : or, either [?]

ama : maid [Sem ’-m, Akk amtu, Heb ama, Syr amtha, Tig amet, Uga amt, Phoen ’mt]

am‘a : intestines [ma‘a] Per am‘a borrowed from Ar

a‘ma : blind [‘amia] Per a‘ma borrowed from Ar

amad : term, period [?]

amadda : supply [madda]

amal : hope [amala] Per amal, Tur emel borrowed from Ar

amala : hope [Sem ’-m-r, Akk amaru (see), namaru (mirror), Heb tamrur (sign), JNA nora (mirror), Amh ammere (show), Tig amere (know), Uga ’mr (see), Phoen ’mr (contemplate)]

amama : in front [imama]

amami : frontal [imama]

aman : safety, security, peace [amana] Hin aman, Ind aman, Per aman, Swa amani borrowed from Ar

amana : trust, believe [Sem ’-m-n, Mal emmen, Heb heemin, Syr hamen, amin (reliable), JNA ’mn (trust), Hrs amon (believe), Amh ammene, emnat, haymanot (faith), Uga imt (true)] Swa amini borrowed from Ar

amana : trust, pledge, credit, pawn, deposit [amana] Ful amana, Gre amanati, Hin amanat, Ind amanah, Per amanat, Rom amanet, Swa amana, Tur emanet borrowed from Ar

amar : command [amara] Ind amar borrowed from Ar

amara : issue a command [Sem ’-m-r (speak), Heb amar (say), Syr emar, JNA ’mr, Hrs amor, Uga ’mr (say), Phoen ’mr]

amara : signal [amala] Per emarat, Tur emare borrowed from Ar

amd : time, season [amad] Per amd borrowed from Ar

amin : true, faithful; reliable, safe; peaceful [amana] Aze emin, Per amin, Swa amini, Tur emin borrowed from Ar

amina : be sure [amana]

amir : commander, prince [amara] Hin amir, Ind amir, Per amir, Tur amir borrowed from Ar

amla : dictate [Sem m-l-l, Heb mila (word), Syr malel (speak)]

amlak : assets [malaka] Per amlak, Tur emlak borrowed from Ar

amlas : smooth [malisa]

amma : but [am] Aze amma, Per amma borrowed from Ar

amn : safety [amana] Per amn borrowed from Ar

amna : ejaculate [Sem m-n-y, Hrs emtoni (wish), Amh temennye, Tig temenna]

amnia : safety [amana] Per amniyat, Tur emniet borrowed from Ar

amr : command [amara] Aze emr, Ful umro, Hau umur, Hin amr, Ind amar, Per amr, Swa amri borrowed from Ar

amr : deed, business, affair [Gur geber (goods)] Hau alamari, Per amr, Swa amara borrowed from Ar

ams : yesterday [Sem ’-m-s, Akk mushu (night), Heb emesh (last night), Amh messhet (evening), Tig meset] Per ams borrowed from Ar

amsaka : seize [masaka]

amsza : execute, put signature on [masza]

amta‘a : goods [?] Aze emtee, Per amte‘e, Tur emtia borrowed from Ar

amthal : examples, similar objects [mathala] Ind amsal, Per amsal, Tur emsal borrowed from Ar

amti‘a : goods; baggage [mata‘a] Per amte‘e borrowed from Ar

amuna : be true [amana]

an : that [Akk enna (now), Heb hinne (here is it)] Per an borrowed from Ar

an : time, moment [Sem ’-n, Heb toana (occasion)] Per an borrowed from Ar

ana : I [Sem ’-n, Mal jien, Akk ana, Heb ani, Syr ena, JNA ana, BAram ana, Ara ’nh, Amh ene, Tig ena, Uga an]

anaba : represent [?]

anaqa : elegance [aniqa]

anbar : store [from Middle Per hambar] Per ambar borrowed from Ar

andhara : warn [nadhira]

anf : nose [Sem ’-p, Akk appu, Heb af, Ara ’p, Tig anef, Uga ap, Ebl appu] Per anf borrowed from Ar

anfaqa : consume, spend [nafaqa]

aniq : elegant [aniqa]

aniqa : be elegant [?]

anis : friendly [anisa] Per anis borrowed from Ar

anisa : be friendly [?]

anisa : young lady [anisa]

anjaza : execute [najaza]

ankara : deny [nakira]

anna : moan [Sem ’-n-n, ’-n-y, Heb anan, Ara ’nn, Uga ’ny (complain)]

anna : how [?]

anqadha : liberate, rescue [naqadha]

anqasz : ruins [naqasza] Tur enkaz borrowed from Ar

anshada : sing [?]

anssar : helpers, disciples [nassara]

anta : you [Sem ’-n-t, Mal inti, Akk atta, Heb ata, Syr anth, Amh ante, Tig enta, Uga at, Phoen ’t] Ind inta borrowed from Ar

antahhala : adopt [Sem n-hh-l, Heb nachal (inherit)]

antaja : produce [nataja]

anti : you [anta]

antum : you [anta]

antunna : you [anta]

anuk : lead [from Sum anag]

anuq : vulture [Sem ’-n-q]

anutha : be feminine [Akk isshu (woman), asshatu (wife), Heb isha, Syr antha, Amh enest (female), Tig essit (woman), Uga atht, Phoen ’sh]

aqall : less [qalla] Hau akalla, Per aqall borrowed from Ar

aqalla : reduce [qalla]

aqama : stay [qama]

aqarra : confirm [qarra]

aqdam : earlier; older [qadama] Per aqdam borrowed from Ar

aqdama : be bold; attack [qadama]

aqfala : shut, lock [qafala]

aqla‘a : sail out, start [qala‘a]

aqmar : whitish [qamar]

aqna‘a : persuade [qani‘a]

aqra‘ : bald [qari‘a]

aqraba : relatives [qaruba] Per aqreba, Tur akraba borrowed from Ar

aqrasza : lend [qarasza]

aqsama : swear an oath [Sem q-s-m, Heb qassam (divine), Ara qssam, OSAr mqsm (divination), Gez qasama (divine)]

aqssa : far; farther [qassa] Per aqssa borrowed from Ar

ara : show [ra]

a‘ra : lend [?]

araba : tie up [OS erib]

a‘raba : express; arabize [‘arraba]

A‘rabi : Arab [‘arraba]

arada : want [Sem r-d-y, Mal ried, Heb ratza, JNA rizza (a wish)]

arahha : rest [rahha]

a‘raj : limp [‘arija] Per a‘raj borrowed from Ar

araszi : grounds, lands [arsz] Aze erazi, Per araszi borrowed from Ar

arba‘ : four [Sem r-b-‘, Mal erbgha, Akk erbe, Heb arba‘a, Syr arba‘, JNA arba, Amh arat, Uga arb‘, Phoen ’rb‘] Swa aroba borrowed from Ar

arba‘in : forty [arba‘] Hau arbain, Per arba‘in, Swa arobaini borrowed from Ar

arbab : masters [rabba] Per arbab, Tur erbap borrowed from Ar

arbi‘a : Wednesday [arba‘] Ind arba borrowed from Ar

arghama : force sy [?]

arhaqa : make suffer [?]

ariba : be skilled [Heb arav (lurk)]

arjawan : purple [Akk argamannu, Heb argaman, JNA arjawan] Per arghawani, Tur erguvani borrowed from Ar

arkan : pillars; staff officers [rakana] Per arkan, Tur erkan borrowed from Ar

armal : widower [armala] Per armal borrowed from Ar

armala : be widowed [Sem ’-r-m-l, Mal armla (widow), Akk almattu, Heb almana, JNA armiltha, Uga almnt, Phoen ’lmt]

arnab : hare [Sem ’-r-n-b, Akk arnabu, Heb arnevet, Syr arnaba, JNA arnuwa, Hrs hheyneb] Ind arnab borrowed from Ar

arracha : fix a date [Sem y-r-ch, Akk warchu (moon), Heb yareach, tarich (date), JNA yarkha (month), Sab warch, Amh war (month), tarik (history), Tig werehh (moon), Uga yrch, Phoen yrch]

arsa : lay anchor [rasa]

arsz : earth [EgAr ard, Akk erssetu, Heb eretz, Syr ar‘a, JNA ara, Uga arss, Phoen ’rss] Ful lardi, Hau lardi, Ind arzi, Per arsz, Swa ardhi, Tur arz borrowed from Ar

aruzz : rice [from Gre oryza]

arz : cedar [Sem ’-r-z, Mal arznu, Heb erez, Syr arza, JNA arza, Uga arz] Ind araz, Per arz borrowed from Ar

arzaq : provisions [razaqa] Aze erzaq, Per arzaq, Tur erzak borrowed from Ar

as : myrtle [Akk asu, JNA asa] Per as borrowed from Ar

asa : cure [from Sum azu]

asa : make bad [Heb asson (calamity)]

asad : lion [Sem ’-sh-d, Akk shedu (demon), Heb shed, Syr sheda, JNA shedha] Ind asad, Per asad borrowed from Ar

asaf : regret [asifa] Per asaf borrowed from Ar

as‘afa : help [sa‘afa]

asara : tie up [Sem ’-s-r, Mal jassar (capture), Akk eseru, Heb assar (arrest), Syr esar, JNA ysr, Amh essere, Uga ’sr]

asas : base, foundation [asasa] Aze esas, Hau harshashi, Ind asas, Per asas, Tur esas borrowed from Ar

asasa : lay foundations [Ara ashesh]

asbala : hang [Heb shovel (tab)]

as’cham : black [sacchama]

asfal : low [see safala] Ind asfal, Per asfal borrowed from Ar

asfara : shine [Sem s-p-r, Heb shafar (be pleasant), Syr shafir (fine, beautiful), JNA shpira]

ashada : praise [?]

ash‘ala : ignite [sha‘ala]

ashall : paralyzed [shalla] Hin shal, Per shal borrowed from Ar

asham : unfortunate [tashama]

ashara : make signs [shara] Swa ashiria borrowed from Ar

ash‘ara : make known [sha‘ara]

ashfaqa : have mercy [?]

ash’hab : grey [shahab] Per ash’hab borrowed from Ar

ash’hal : blue-eyed [shuhla] Per ash’hal borrowed from Ar

as’hham : red [sahham]

ashia : objects, things [shai] Aze esya, Per ashya, Tur esya borrowed from Ar

ashmal : left [shimal]

ashqar : bay-colored; blond-haired [shaqira] Per ashqar borrowed from Ar

ashraf : nobles [sharufa] Per ashraf borrowed from Ar

ashram : hare-lipped [sharama]

ashraqa : ascend [sharaqa]

ashyab : gray-haired [shaba]

asifa : regret [?]

asir : prisoner [asara] Per asir, Tur esir borrowed from Ar

askana : settle [sakana]

asmar : brown [samara] Per asmar, Tur esmer borrowed from Ar

asqatta : drop [saqatta]

asrafa : squander [?]

asrar : secrets; hashish [sirr] Per asrar, Tur esrar borrowed from Ar

assaba : hit [ssaba]

assamm : deaf [ssamma]

assarra : insist [ssarra]

assbu‘ : finger [issba‘] Per assbu‘ borrowed from Ar

assbahha : become [?]

assdara : publish [ssadara]

assfar : yellow [ssuffr] Per assfar borrowed from Ar

assgha : listen [?]

assil : of noble origin [assula] Per assil borrowed from Ar

assl : root; origin, source [assula] Ful asli, Hau asali, Hin asl, Ind asal, Per assl, Swa asili borrowed from Ar

asslahha : repair [ssalahha]

assli : original, genuine [assula] Aze esil, Hin asli, Per assli borrowed from Ar

assnaf : classes, categories; craftsmen; guild [ssannafa] Alb esnaf, Bul esnaf, Per assnaf, Ser esnaf, Tur esnaf borrowed from Ar

assrara : insist [Sem s-r-r, Akk sararu (contest), Heb ssarar (rebel)]

assula : have roots [Heb atzil (noble)]

aswad : black [sauwada] Ind aswad, Per aswad borrowed from Ar

asza‘a : destroy [sza‘a]

aszhha : sacrifice animal [szahha] Per aszhha borrowed from Ar

aszraba : give up, avoid; strike [szaraba]

ata : come [Sem ’-t-y, Syr etha, Ara ’th, SAr ’tw, Tig ata, Uga ’tw, ’ty]

at‘aba : tire out [ta‘iba]

athar : trace [Akk ashru (place), Heb atar (site), Syr athara (place, region), JNA athra, bathir (after), Uga athr, Phoen ’shr, t’r (place)] Hin asar, Per athar, Swa athari, Tur eser borrowed from Ar

athara : prefer [?]

athath : furniture [atthatha] Per athath borrowed from Ar

at’hhafa : give a gift [?]

athl : tamarisk [from OEg aser]

athna : time; during [thana] Per athna borrowed from Ar

atin : coming [ata] Per ati borrowed from Ar

atlafa : cause damage [talifa]

atqana : make perfect, repair [Heb tiqqen, Syr thaqen]

a‘tta : offer, give [‘attan]

atta‘a : obey [tta‘a]

att‘ama : feed [tta‘ima]

attara : bend [Heb ittar (rim)]

attbaqa : close; cover [Sem tt-b-q, Uga ttbq]

attfa : extinguish [ttafia]

atthara : make influence [athara]

atthatha : furnish [?]

attla‘a : show [ttala‘a]

attlaqa : release [ttallaqa]

attraf : surroundings, periphery [ttaraf] Aze etraf, Per attraf, Tur etraf borrowed from Ar

attrash : deaf [ttarisha] Per attrush borrowed from Ar

atun : kiln [from Sum udun]

au : or [Sem ’-w, Mal jew, Heb o, Syr o, Uga u]

auhhasha : abandon, let become wild [?]

aula : these [Heb ele]

aula : first, important [auwal] Per oula, Swa aula borrowed from Ar

aulad : children; successors [walada] Aze övlad, Per oulad, Tur evlat borrowed from Ar

aulama : give a banquet [Meh awolem (prepare a meal)]

aulia : leaders; holy men [wali] Hin auliya, Ind aulia, Per ouliya borrowed from Ar

auma : make a sign [Akk wama‘u (swear)]

auqafa : install, set [waqafa]

auqat : times; mood [waqqata] Hin aukat, Per ouqat borrowed from Ar

auraq : pages; papers, documents [waraq] Per ouraq, Tur evrak borrowed from Ar

ausatt : central, mid- [wasatt] Hin ausat, Per ousatt borrowed from Ar

ausattan : on average [wasatt] Hin ausatan borrowed from Ar

aussa : recommend, propose [wassa]

aussaf : characteristics [wassafa] Per oussaf, Tur evsaf borrowed from Ar

auwa : accommodate [OS ay]

auwal : early; earlier; first [Mal ewwel, Ara awla (beginning)] Aze evvel, Hin avval, Ind awal, Per awwal, Swa awali, Tur evvel borrowed from Ar

auwali : original, basic [auwal] Per awwali borrowed from Ar

auzar : burdens [wazara] Hin auzar, Per ouzar borrowed from Ar

awa : jackal [?]

a‘waj : bent [‘awija] Per a‘waj borrowed from Ar

awalan : at first [auwal] Per awalan borrowed from Ar

awan : times, period [an] Per awan borrowed from Ar

a‘war : one eyed [Sem ‘-w-r, Heb ‘iver (blind), Syr ‘ewira, Hrs ‘awer (go blind), Amh ewur (blind), Tig ore (be blind)] Per a‘war borrowed from Ar

a‘waza : be poor; be absent [‘awiza]

aya : token; verse [Sem ’-w-y, Akk ittu, Heb ot, Syr atha] Ful aya, Per ayat, Swa aya, Tur ayet borrowed from Ar

ayy : which [Sem ’-y, Akk ayyu, Heb eyze, eykh (how), eyfo (where), Uga ay (which)]

ayyar : May [Sem ’-y-r, Akk ayyaru (flower), aru (frond), Heb iyyar (May)] Per ayyar borrowed from Ar

a‘zab : unmarried [‘azaba]

azaba : flow [Sem ’-z-b]

azal : eternity [Heb azal (go forth), JNA azal, BAram ’zl] Per azal borrowed from Ar

azali : eternal [azal] Per azali, Swa azali, Tur ezeli borrowed from Ar

azara : surround, wrap [Sem ’-z-r, Heb eyzor (zone), JNA izar (shawl), Uga ’zr (gird), mizrt (apron)]

azhara : bloom [zahara]

azma : crisis [?]

azraq : gray; blue [zariqa] Per azraq borrowed from Ar

‘A

‘aba : be defect [?]

‘aba : fill up; mobilize [?]

‘abada : serve, worship [Sem ‘-b-d, Akk abdu (slave), Heb ‘avad (serve), Syr ‘abad, JNA oda (slave), ‘bd (worship), ’wdh (serve), BAram ‘avad (slave), Uga ‘bd (work), Phoen ‘bd] Swa abudu borrowed from Ar

‘abara : cross over [Sem ‘-b-r, Akk eberu, Heb ‘avar, Syr ‘abar, JNA ’wr, Uga ‘br, Phoen ‘br] Swa abiri borrowed from Ar

‘abbada : build, pave [‘abada]

‘abbara : explain, interpret [?]

‘abd : slave [‘abada] Ind abdi, Per ‘abd borrowed from Ar

‘abira : have tears [?]

‘abr : passage; transit [‘abara] Per ‘abr borrowed from Ar

‘ada : return [Sem ‘-w-d, Mal ghid (holiday), ghada (custom), Heb ‘od (again), Syr ‘eda (holiday), ‘yada (custom), JNA edha, Uga ‘wd (bring back), Phoen ‘d (still, yet)]

‘ada : run, pass [Sem ‘-d-w, Mal ghadda, ghadu (enemy), Heb ‘ada (pass), Syr ‘eda, Soq ‘dy, Gez ‘dw]

‘ada : in addition to [?] Per ‘ada borrowed from Ar

‘ada : custom, habit [‘ada] Aze adet, Ful alada, Hau alada, Hin adet, Kyr adat, Per ‘adat, Tat gadet, Tur adet borrowed from Ar

‘adad : number, numeral [‘adda] Hau adadi, Hin adad, Per ‘adad, Swa idadi borrowed from Ar

‘adala : be even [JNA ‘dla (straighten)]

‘adam : nothing [‘adima] Per ‘adam borrowed from Ar

‘adala : justice, court [‘adala] Aze edalat, Hin adalat, Kyr adilet, Per ‘adalat, Tur adalet borrowed from Ar

‘adas : lentils [Mal ghads, Heb ‘adasa] Per ‘adas borrowed from Ar

‘adawa : enmity [‘ada] Hau adawa, Per ‘adawat, Tur adavet borrowed from Ar

‘adda : count, reckon [Mal ghadda, ghodda (tool), JNA ‘adad (number), Hrs ‘adad (count), Tig ‘ed (tribe), ‘edde (count)]

‘addhaba : punish [Mal ghaddeb]

‘adha : seek refuge [?]

‘adhab : anguish, pain; punishment, torment, torture; hell [‘addhaba] Hau azaba, Hin azab, Ind adzab, azab, Kyr azap, Per ‘adhab, Tat gazap, Tur azap, Uzb azob borrowed from Ar

‘adhala : scold [?]

‘adhara : pardon [Mal ghader]

‘adhb : sweet [‘adhuba] Per ‘adhb borrowed from Ar

‘adhil : scolding [‘adhala] Per ‘adhel borrowed from Ar

‘adhir : pardoning [‘adhara] Per ‘adher borrowed from Ar

‘adhuba : be sweet [?]

‘adi : customary, normal [‘ada] Aze adi, Per ‘adi borrowed from Ar

‘adid : numerous [‘adda] Per ‘adid borrowed from Ar

‘adil : just, righteous, impartial, fair, straight [‘adala] Aze adil, Hau adili, Ind adil, Kyr adil, Per ‘adel, Swa adili, Tat gadel, Tur adil, Uzb adil borrowed from Ar

‘adim : omitted [‘adima] Per ‘adim borrowed from Ar

‘adima : be lost [JNA ‘dm (destroy)]

‘adlia : justice [‘adala] Aze edliyye, Per ‘adliye borrowed from Ar

‘adu : enemy [‘ada] Per ‘adoww, Swa adui borrowed from Ar

‘adwa : infection [‘ada]

‘adzim : big [‘adzuma] Ind azim, Per ‘adzim borrowed from Ar

‘adzm : bone [Sem ‘-dz-m, EgAr ‘adm, Mal ghadma, Akk essemtu, Heb ‘etzem, Tig assem, Uga ‘dzm, Phoen ‘ssm, Ebl adzmu] Per ‘adzm borrowed from Ar

‘adzuma : be big [Sem ‘-dz-m, Heb ‘atzma (power), Uga ‘dzm, Phoen t‘ssmt]

‘afa : heal [Sem ‘-p-w, Hrs ‘afyet]

‘afa : eliminate; pardon [?]

‘afar : dust [Sem ‘-p-r, Akk eperu, Heb ‘afar, Syr ‘afra, JNA ipra, Hrs ‘afor (cloud), Tig efer (dust), Uga ‘pr]

‘afasha : heap up [?]

‘affa : refrain from [?]

‘afia : health [‘afa] Aze afiyet, Ful afiya, Hau lafiya, Per ‘afiya, Swa afya, Tur afiyet borrowed from Ar

‘afif : virginal [‘affa] Per ‘afif borrowed from Ar

‘afina : rot [?]

‘afsh : baggage, furniture [‘afasha]

‘afss : gallnut [Heb ‘afatz, JNA ‘apssa]

‘afw : pardon, forgiveness [‘afa] Aze efv, Ful yafu, Per ‘afw, Tat gafu borrowed from Ar

‘ahada : promise [Ara ‘hd (remember)] Swa ahidi borrowed from Ar

‘ahd : contract; union; promise; epoch [‘ahada] Hin ahd, Per ‘ahd, Swa ahadi borrowed from Ar

‘aib : blemish, disgrace, shame, fault, guilt [‘aba] Aze ayib, eyib, Hau aibi, Hin aib, Kyr ayip, Per ‘eyb, Swa aibu, Tur ayip borrowed from Ar

‘aila : family [‘ala] Per ‘aele, Taj oila, Tat gaile, Tur aile borrowed from Ar

‘ain : the letter ‘ [Sem ‘-y-n, Heb ‘ain] Per ‘eyn borrowed from Ar

‘ain : eye [Sem ‘-y-n, Mal ghajn, Akk inu, Heb ‘ain, Syr ‘aina, JNA ena, Meh ‘ain, Amh ayn, Tig en, Uga ‘n, Phoen ‘n, Ebl ‘aynay] Ind ain, Per ‘eyn borrowed from Ar

‘ainan : exactly [‘ain] Per ‘eynan borrowed from Ar

‘air : wild ass [Uga ‘r]

‘aish : life [‘asha] Hin aish, Per ‘eysh borrowed from Ar

‘ajab : astonishment, wonder; wonderful [‘ajiba] Aze eceb, Hin ajab, Ind ajabu, Per ‘ajab borrowed from Ar

‘ajaib : wonders; wonderful, interesting [‘ajiba] Aze ecaib, Ind ajaib, Per ‘ajaeb, Taj ajoib, Tur acayip borrowed from Ar

‘aj : tusk [‘awija] Per ‘aj borrowed from Ar

‘ajala : wheel [Heb ‘agala (cart), JNA ‘ajala, Phoen ‘glt]

‘ajala : haste [‘ajila] Per ‘ajale, Tur acele borrowed from Ar

‘ajam : Non-Arabs, Persians [maybe from the geographical name Elam] Per ‘ajam borrowed from Ar

‘ajami : dumb, clumsy; non-Arab, Persian [‘ajam] Ful ajami, Gre atzames, Per ‘ajami, Rom ageamiu, Tur acemi borrowed from Ar

‘ajana : knead [Mal ghagina (dough), JNA ‘jn (knead)]

‘ajaza : be weak [Sem ‘-g-z, Hrs ‘agoz]

‘ajib : astounding, marvelous, wonderful [‘ajiba] Per ‘ajib, Tat gadzhep borrowed from Ar

‘ajiba : amaze [Mal ghaggeb, EgAr ‘agib, JNA ‘jb]

‘ajil : hasty [‘ajila] Per ‘ajil, ‘ajel borrowed from Ar

‘ajila : be in hurry [Sem ‘-j-l, Mal ghaggel, EgAr ‘agala (haste)]

‘ajin : dough [‘ajana] Per ‘ajin borrowed from Ar

‘ajiz : weak, impotent [‘ajaza] Hau ajizi, Per ‘ajez, Tur aciz borrowed from Ar

‘ajjaja : whirl up (dust) [?]

‘ajwa : dried dates [?]

‘ajz : weakness, slackness [‘ajaza] Per ‘ajz, Swa ajizi borrowed from Ar

‘akafa : strive [?]

‘akasa : reflect [?]

‘akif : diligent [‘akafa] Per ‘akef borrowed from Ar

‘aks : reflection; photo, picture; opposite [‘akasa] Aze eks, Hau akasi, Per ‘aks borrowed from Ar

‘ala : be high [Sem ‘-l-y, Mal ghal (upon), Akk eli, Heb ‘al, Syr ‘al, JNA il, Amh lay (up), Uga ‘l, Phoen ‘l]

‘ala : provide a family [?]

‘ala : on [‘ala] Ind ala, Per ‘ala borrowed from Ar

‘alafa : feed [Mal ghalef]

‘alaja : handle, treat [?]

‘alam : world, universe [Sem ‘-l-m, Heb ‘olam, Syr ‘alma, JNA ‘alam, BAram ‘alma, Amh alem, Uga ‘lm, Phoen ‘lm] Aze alem, Ind alam, Kyr aalam, Per ‘alam, Tat galem, Tur alem, Uzb olam borrowed from Ar

‘alam : mark; flag [‘alama] Per ‘alam, Tur alem borrowed from Ar

‘alama : know [Sem ‘-l-m, Mal ghallem (teach), ghelm (flag), Syr ‘alama (pupil), Amh alama (flag)]

‘alama : sign [‘alama] Aze elamet, Ful alama, Hau alama, Hin alamat, Ind alamat, Per ‘alamat, Swa alama, Tur alamet borrowed from Ar

‘alana : be known [?]

‘alani : public [‘alana] Per ‘alani borrowed from Ar

‘alaq : leech [Sem ‘-l-q, Akk ilqu, Heb ‘aluqa, Amh elqet, Tig aleq] Per ‘alaq borrowed from Ar

‘alaqa : dependence; attachment; connection [‘aliqa] Aze elaqe, Hin ilaka, Per ‘alaqe borrowed from Ar

‘ali : supreme, high [‘ala] Aze ali, Per ‘ali, Tur ali, Uzb oliy borrowed from Ar

‘alil : weak, ill [‘alla] Per ‘alil borrowed from Ar

‘alim : learned; scholar, scientist [‘alama] Aze alim, Ind alim, Per ‘alem, Tat galim, Tur alim borrowed from Ar

‘alima : know [‘alama]

‘alin : high [‘ala] Per ‘ali, Tur ali borrowed from Ar

‘aliqa : hang; be added [Sem ‘-l-q, Mal ghallaq, Hrs ‘ayleq]

‘alla : be weak, ill [Mal ghilla (ailment)]

‘alla : maybe [?]

‘allaba : put (conserve) in can [JNA ‘ulba (bushel)]

‘allama : teach [‘alima]

‘allaqa : iron (for clothes) [?]

‘allaqa : add a comment [‘aliqa]

‘am : uncle [Sem ‘-m, Heb ‘am (kinsman), Syr ‘amtha (aunt), Hrs ‘om (ancestor)] Per ‘am borrowed from Ar

‘am : year [Amh amat] Per ‘am borrowed from Ar

‘ama : swim [Mal gham]

‘ama : blindness [‘amia] Per ‘ama borrowed from Ar

‘amada : support [Sem ‘-m-d, Heb ‘amad (stand), ‘amud (column, pillar), Syr ‘amuda, Amh amd, Phoen ‘md]

‘amal : work, act, affair [‘amila] Hin amal, Ind amal, Kyr amal, Per ‘amal, Swa amali, Tur amel, Uzb amal borrowed from Ar

‘amali : operative, practical [‘amila] Per ‘amali borrowed from Ar

‘amalia : acts, operations [‘amila] Aze emeliyyat, Per ‘amaliyat borrowed from Ar

‘amara : dwell, live [Sem ‘-m-r, Mal ghammar, Syr ‘emar, JNA ’mr (be built), ‘umir (life)]

‘amd : standpoint; intention [‘amada] Per ‘amd borrowed from Ar

‘amdan : intentionally [‘amada] Per ‘amdan borrowed from Ar

‘amia : be blind [Mal aghma, Tig ama]

‘amid : dean [‘amada] Per ‘amid borrowed from Ar

‘amil : factor, agent; worker [‘amila] Per ‘amil, Tur amil borrowed from Ar

‘amila : work, act [Sem ‘-m-l, Mal ghamel, Heb ‘amal (toil), Syr ‘amel]

‘amim : general, public [‘amma] Per ‘amim borrowed from Ar

‘amiq : deep [‘amuqa] Per ‘amiq borrowed from Ar

‘amm : general [‘amma] Per ‘amm borrowed from Ar

‘amma : be general [Akk ammu (people, nation), Heb ‘am, ‘umma, Syr ‘ama, Uga ‘m, Phoen ‘m, ‘mt (community)]

‘amma : cover, comprise [Uga ‘mm (wrap; dim)]

‘amma : mob, crowd; the public [‘amma] Per ‘amme borrowed from Ar

‘ammada : baptize [Mal ghammed, Syr ‘emad]

‘ammama : turban [‘amma] Per ‘ammame borrowed from Ar

‘ammi : common, vulgar [‘amma] Per ‘ammi borrowed from Ar

‘amud : pillar [‘amada] Per ‘amud borrowed from Ar

‘amudi : vertical [‘amud] Per ‘amudi, Tur amudi borrowed from Ar

‘amuqa : be deep [Sem ‘-m-q, Mal ghammieq, Heb ‘amoq, Syr ‘amiqa, JNA ‘umqe (depths), Uga ‘mq (deep), Phoen ‘mq (valley)]

‘amura : bloom [?]

‘an : away from [?]

‘ana : be anxious [?]

‘ana : mean; relate, concern [?]

‘anada : be spiteful; deviate [Ara ‘nd (depart)]

‘anan : clouds [Sem ‘-n-n, Heb ‘anan, Syr ‘anana, JNA inana] Per ‘anan borrowed from Ar

‘an‘ana : oral traditions [?] Aze enene, Per ‘an‘ane borrowed from Ar

‘anaq : female kid [Akk uniqu]

‘anaqa : embrace [Mal ghannaq]

‘anbar : amber [Sem ‘-n-b-r] Per ‘anbar borrowed from Ar

‘anbar : store [anbar]

‘andalib : nightingale [?] Per ‘andalib borrowed from Ar

‘anif : severe [‘annafa] Per ‘anif borrowed from Ar

‘annafa : treat severely [?]

‘anqabut : spider [Mal ghanqbuta (cobweb), Heb ‘akkavish, JNA qo’ta] Per ‘ankabut borrowed from Ar

‘anz : goat [from Sum uz]

‘aqa : hinder [maybe from a common Sem root ‘-q (restrain)]

‘aqab : heel [‘aqaba] Per ‘aqab borrowed from Ar

‘aqaba : follow [Sem ‘-q-b, Mal gharqub (heel), Akk eqbu, Heb ‘aqev, Syr ‘eqba, JNA aqba, Tig eqeb (leg), Uga ‘qb (hoof)]

‘aqaba : steep path; obstacle [Uga ‘qb (restrain)]

‘aqaba : punish [‘aqaba]

‘aqada : tie a knot [Sem ‘-q-d, Mal ghaqqad (unite, congeal), Ara ‘qd (bend, bond)]

‘aqafa : bend [Sem ‘-q-p, Heb ‘aqaf (bypass), Ara ‘qp (encircle), Amh aqqefe (embrace)]

‘aqala : be intelligent [Sem ‘-q-l, Mal ghaqal, JNA ‘aqil (reason)]

‘aqala : tie up, restrain, fetter [maybe from a common Sem root ‘-q (restrain)]

‘aqama : be sterile [Sem ‘-q-m, Heb ‘iqqem (distort), Ara ‘qm]

‘aqaqir : drugs [‘aqara] Per ‘aqaqir borrowed from Ar

‘aqar : sterility [‘aqara] Per ‘aqar borrowed from Ar

‘aqara : be sterile [Sem ‘-q-r, Heb ‘aqar (sterile; uproot), Syr ‘aqar (hinder), ‘eqar (uproot), ‘eqara (root), JNA iqra, ‘aqira (barren woman), Phoen ‘kr]

‘aqara : be addicted [Ara ‘qr (drug)]

‘aqassa : plait [Sem ‘-q-s]

‘aqib : offspring; successor [‘aqaba] Per ‘aqib, ‘aqeb borrowed from Ar

‘aqida : dogma, faith [‘aqada] Per ‘aqide, Tur akide, Ind akidah borrowed from Ar

‘aqil : intelligent [‘aqala] Ind akil, Per ‘aqel borrowed from Ar

‘aql : reason, mind, intellect, intelligence [‘aqala] Hin aql, Ind akal, Kyr akyl, Per ‘aql, Swa akili, Tur akil, Uzb aql borrowed from Ar

‘aqli : mental, intellectual [‘aqala] Aze eqli, Per ‘aqli borrowed from Ar

‘aqqada : complicate [‘aqada]

‘aqrab : scorpion [Sem ‘-q-r-b, Mal ghakreb, Akk aqrabu, Heb ‘aqrav, Syr ‘eqarba, JNA aqirwa, Jib aqreb, Uga ‘qrb] Per ‘aqrab, Tur akrep borrowed from Ar

‘ar : shame [‘urya] Per ‘ar borrowed from Ar

‘ara : loiter [?]

‘arab : Arab [‘arraba] Ful arabo, Hin arab, Ind arab, Per ‘arab, Ser arapin, Tat garep, Tur arap borrowed from Ar

‘araba : carriage, wagon [JNA ‘arabana] Kyr arava, Per ‘arabe, Taj aroba, Tat arba, Tur araba borrowed from Ar

‘arabi : Arabic [‘arraba] Per ‘arabi, Tur arabi borrowed from Ar

‘arabun : pledge; surety [Sem ‘-r-b, Akk urubanu (guarantor), Heb ‘arav (pledge), Syr ‘erab, rahbona, Uga ‘rbn (guarantor), Phoen ‘rb (pledge)] Per ‘arabun, Swa arabuni borrowed from Ar

‘arafa : learn, recognize [Sem ‘-r-p, Mal gharaf]

‘arafa : make known, inform [‘arafa] Swa arifu borrowed from Ar

‘araja : descend [ghariqa]

‘araka : be in battle [Heb ‘arakh (arrange), Uga ‘rk]

‘araka : rub [Mal ghorok]

‘arama : heap up [Sem ‘-r-m, Heb ‘aram, Uga ghrmn (a heap)]

‘araq : sap; spirit; vodka [?] Alb raki, Bul rakija, Gre raki, Hin araq, Kyr arak, Per ‘araq, Rom rachiu, Ser rakija, Tur raki, Uzb araq borrowed from Ar

‘araq : sweat [‘ariqa] Per ‘araq borrowed from Ar

‘ar‘ar : tamarisk [Uga ‘r‘r] Per ‘ar‘ar borrowed from Ar

‘arasza : oppose, object to [?]

‘arasza : show, exhibit; extend an offer [‘arusza]

‘aria : be naked [Sem ‘-r-y, Mal gharwien, gheri (naked), Akk eru (be naked), Heb ‘arom (naked), JNA ‘irwa (nakedness), Uga ‘rw (be naked)]

‘arif : learned [‘arafa] Aze arif, Ind arif, Per ‘aref borrowed from Ar

‘ariq : ancient [‘ariqa]

‘arija : be limp [Sem ‘-r-g, JNA ‘rj]

‘ariqa : sweat [Sem ‘-r-q, Mal gharaq]

‘ariqa : grow roots [Sem ‘-r-q, Mal gherq (root), Hrs ‘arq (vein, sinew), Tig ereq (tendon)]

‘aris : bridegroom [‘arrasa]

‘arish : hut [Sem ‘-r-sh]

‘arisha : vineyard [‘arish] Per ‘aresz borrowed from Ar

‘arisz : appearing [‘arusza] Per ‘aresz borrowed from Ar

‘arisz : wide [‘arusza] Per ‘arisz borrowed from Ar

‘arka : battle [‘araka]

‘arqala : bar, hinder [‘aqala]

‘arqub : Achilles tendon [‘urqub] Per ‘arqub borrowed from Ar

‘arraba : arabize [Mal gharbi (Arab), Heb ‘Arav, Amh Areb]

‘arrafa : make known [‘arafa]

‘arrasa : marry [Sem ‘-r-sh, Mal gharusa (bride), Akk erishu (bridegroom), ereshu (wish), Heb arass (betroth), arussa (fiancee), Phoen ’rsh (wish), Uga ’rsh]

‘arsh : throne [Sem ‘-r-sh, Mal gharix (crib), Akk ershu (bed), Heb ‘eress, ‘arissa (cradle), Syr ‘arsa (throne), Uga ‘rsh (bed)] Ful alarsi, Per ‘arsh borrowed from Ar

‘arssa : court; field, arena [?] Per ‘arsse, Tur arsa borrowed from Ar

‘arsz : breadth [‘arusza] Per ‘arsz, Tur arz borrowed from Ar

‘arsz : offer [‘arasza] Per ‘arsz, Tur arz borrowed from Ar

‘arus : bride [‘arrasa] Per ‘arus borrowed from Ar

‘arusi : wedding [‘arrasa] Swa arusi, Per ‘arusi borrowed from Ar

‘arusza : be wide, extended [?]

‘asa : guard [Sem ‘-w-s, Mal ghassa, Uga ‘ws (night patrol)]

‘asal : honey [Mal ghasel] Per ‘asal, Swa asali, Taj asal borrowed from Ar

‘asha : live [Mal ghex] Swa ishi borrowed from Ar

‘asha : dinner [Mal ghaxija (evening)] Per ‘asha borrowed from Ar

‘ashar : ten [Sem ‘-sh-r, Mal ghaxar, Akk esher, Heb ‘asara, Syr ‘esra, JNA isra, Amh aser, Uga ‘shr, Phoen ‘shr] Per ‘ashar borrowed from Ar

‘ashara : be in good company; have pleasure [Sem ‘-sh-r, SAr ‘szr (friend), Hsr ‘esore, Soq ‘szr, Uga ‘shr (serve drinks, invite)]

‘ashia : evening [‘asha]

‘ashiq : lover [‘ashiqa] Aze asiq, Per ‘asheq borrowed from Ar

‘ashiqa : love [Sem ‘-sh-q, Mal ghaxqa (delight), JNA ‘shq (desire, be in love)]

‘ashir : tenth [‘ashara] Per ‘asher borrowed from Ar

‘ashra : ten [‘ashara] Per ‘ashre borrowed from Ar

‘askar : troops, army [from Lat exercitium] Ful askar, Ind askar, Kyr asker, Per ‘askar, Swa askari, Tat gasker, Tur asker, Uzb askar borrowed from Ar

‘askari : military [‘askar] Per ‘askari, Tur askeri borrowed from Ar

‘asr : vesper; afternoon [Mal ghasar, Soq ‘aser (time)] Hau laasar, Ind asar, Per ‘asr, Swa alasiri borrowed from Ar

‘assa : staff [?] Per ‘assa borrowed from Ar

‘assa : disobey [?]

‘assab : nerve [Heb ‘etzev, Tig anssebet (sinew)] Aze eseb, Ind asabat, Per ‘assab borrowed from Ar

‘assaba : tie, wrap [Sem ‘-ss-b]

‘assaba : nerves [‘assab] Ind asabat borrowed from Ar

‘assabi : nervous [‘assab] Per ‘assabi, Tur asabi borrowed from Ar

‘assafa : blow (strong wind) [?]

‘assama : withhold; protect [?]

‘assara : squeeze [Sem ‘-ss-r, Mal ghaser, Akk eseru (exact payment), Heb ‘atzar (stop), Amh asere (tie)]

‘assara : be contemporary [Heb ‘atzeret (festival), JNA ‘assir (afternoon)]

‘assi : rebel [‘assa] Per ‘assi borrowed from Ar

‘assifa : storm [‘assafa] Per ‘assefe borrowed from Ar

‘assima : capital city [‘assama] Per ‘asseme borrowed from Ar

‘assir : juice [‘assara] Per ‘assir borrowed from Ar

‘assr : age, epoch; afternoon [‘assara] Aze esr, Per ‘assr, Tat gasir, Tur asir borrowed from Ar

‘assri : contemporary; modern [‘assara] Per ‘asri borrowed from Ar

‘assza : bite [Sem ‘-d]

‘asza : give replacement [?]

‘asza : members [‘uszw] Per ‘asza, Tur aza borrowed from Ar

‘aszala : muscle [‘aszila]

‘aszila : be muscular [?]

‘aszula : muscle [‘aszila] Per ‘aszole borrowed from Ar

‘ataba : threshold [Mal ghatba] Per ‘atabe borrowed from Ar

‘ataqa : set free [Sem ‘-t-q, Akk etequ]

‘atiq : ancient [‘atuqa] Per ‘atiq borrowed from Ar

‘atta : give [Mal ghoti (gift)]

‘atta : gift [‘atta] Per ‘atta borrowed from Ar

‘attab : damage [‘attiba]

‘attafa : incline; feel towards [Sem ‘-tt-p, Heb ‘attaf (wrap), Amh attefe (fold)]

‘attafa : fold [‘attafa]

‘attala : idleness, unemployment [‘attila] Per ‘attalat borrowed from Ar

‘attala : make idle, unemployed [‘attila]

‘attar : perfumery; perfumist [‘attara] Per ‘attar borrowed from Ar

‘attara : perfume [Sem ‘-tt-r, Syr ‘attor (breathing, smoking)]

‘attasa : sneeze [Sem ‘-t-s, Mal ghatas, Heb hit‘attesh, Amh anettese]

‘attash : thirst [‘attisha] Per ‘attash borrowed from Ar

‘attf : inclination; feeling [‘attafa] Per ‘attf borrowed from Ar

‘attia : gift [‘atta] Per ‘attiye borrowed from Ar

‘attiba : damage [Mal ghattab (maim)]

‘attif : good-willing [‘attafa] Per ‘attef borrowed from Ar

‘attil : idle, unemployed [‘attila] Per ‘attel borrowed from Ar

‘attila : be bare; be idle [Heb ‘irttel (denude)]

‘attir : good-smelling [‘attara] Per ‘atter borrowed from Ar

‘attisha : be thirsty [Mal ghatx (thirst)]

‘attr : perfume [‘attara] Aze etir, Ind atar, Kyr atyr, Per ‘attr borrowed from Ar

‘attsa : a sneeze [‘attasa] Per ‘attse borrowed from Ar

‘attshan : thirsty [‘attisha] Per ‘attshan borrowed from Ar

‘atuda : be prepared [Heb ‘atid (future), Syr ‘athid, ‘athed (ready)]

‘atuqa : become ancient [Heb ‘atiq (ancient), Akk etequ (proceed, cross), Syr ‘athiq (ancient), JNA atiqa]

‘aun : help [‘awana] Per ‘oun, Swa auni borrowed from Ar

‘aura : genitals, pudenda [‘awira] Ful alaura, Hin aurat, Ind aurat, Per ‘ourat borrowed from Ar

‘auwala : wail [Heb ‘avel (injustice)]

‘auwasza : replace [‘asza]

‘awana : help [Sem ‘-w-n, Mal ghen, JNA ‘yn, Uga ‘nn (helper)]

‘awija : be bent, hump-backed [Sem ‘-w-g, JNA ‘ujja (hunch)]

‘awira : be one-eyed [Sem ‘-w-r, Heb ‘iver (blind), Syr ‘ewira, JNA ‘wr (squint), Amh ewwer (blind), Uga ‘wr, Phoen ‘wr]

‘awiza : be poor [maybe from a common Sem root ‘-w (be deficient)]

‘ayara : measure [Sem ‘-y-r, Syr ‘eyratha (revenge)]

‘ayyar : loiterer; villain [‘ara] Hin aiyar, Per ‘ayyar borrowed from Ar

‘ayyash : fond of life [‘asha] Hin aiyash, Per ‘ayyash borrowed from Ar

‘azab : bachelor [‘azaba] Per ‘azab borrowed from Ar

‘azaba : be distant [Mal ghazeb (bachelor), Akk ezebu (leave), Heb ‘azav]

‘azafa : play (music) [?]

‘azala : remove [?]

‘azama : decide [Ara ‘zm (nip off)]

‘azaqa : dig [Sem ‘-z-q, Mal ghazaq]

‘azara : scold [?]

‘azia : get comforted [?]

‘azim : setting off [‘azama] Per ‘azem borrowed from Ar

‘azima : resolve; departure [‘azama] Per ‘azimat, Tur azimet borrowed from Ar

‘azima : talisman [‘azama] Per ‘azimat, Swa azima borrowed from Ar

‘aziz : dear; strong [‘azza] Aze eziz, Hin aziz, Per ‘aziz, Swa azizi, Tur aziz, Uzb aziz borrowed from Ar

‘azm : resolve [‘azama] Per ‘azm borrowed from Ar

‘azza : be strong [Sem ‘-z-z, Mal ghaziz (dear), Akk ezezu (be fierce), Heb ‘oz (vigor), Syr ‘aziz (dear), Amh azzeze (command), Uga ‘z (force), Phoen ‘z]


B Edit

ba : the letter b [Sem b-y-t, Heb bet] Ind ba, Per be borrowed from Ar

ba : return [Sem b-w, Akk bau (come), Heb ba, Tig bea (enter), Uga bw’ (come), Phoen bw’]

ba‘a : sell [Mal biegh]

ba‘aqa : cut [Sem b-‘-q]

ba‘atha : send, delegate [?]

bab : door; chapter [Sem b-b, Mal bieb, Akk babu, Ara bb] Hau babi, Hin bab, Ind bab, Per bab borrowed from Ar

babgha : popinjay, parrot [from Per]

babunaj : chamomile [from Middle Per babunag]

babur : locomotive [from Ita vapore (steam)]

bacha : rot [Sem b-w-ch]

bachil : miserly [bachila] Ind bakhil, Per bakhil, Swa bahili borrowed from Ar

bachila : be miserly [?]

ba‘d : after [ba‘uda] Hin bad, Per ba‘d, Swa baada borrowed from Ar

bada : perish [Sem b-y-d]

bada : begin [OS bada, Hrs bedo]

bada‘a : do the first time [bada]

badaha : appear unexpectedly [?]

badal : change; substitute [badala] Hin badal, Per badal, Swa badala borrowed from Ar

badala : replace, exchange [Sem b-d-l, Mal bidel, Heb hevdel (difference), Uga bdlm (reserves)] Hin badalna, Swa badili borrowed from Ar

badan : body; corpse [Sem b-d-n, Hrs bedan, Amh beden, Tig beden] Aze beden, Hin badan, Ind badan, Per badan, Taj badan, Tur beden borrowed from Ar

badawi : Beduin [badia] Ind badui, Per badawi borrowed from Ar

badda : scatter, distribute [Sem b-d-d]

badda‘a : charge with heresy [?]

badhala : spend [?]

badhara : scatter, sow [Sem b-dh-r, Syr badar]

badhinjan : eggplant, aubergine [from Per badenjan] Bul patlydzhan, Hun padlizsan, Ser patlidzan, Swa bilingani, Tur patlican, Uzb baqladjon borrowed from Ar

badhr : seed [badhara]

badi‘ : unique, wonderful [bada‘a]

badia : desert [Sem b-d-w, Heb levad (alone), Uga lbdm, Amh beda (desolate), bado (empty)]

badiha : improvisation, cleverness [badaha]

badihi : natural [badaha]

badla : suit, costume [badala]

badr : full moon [?] Ind badar, Per badr borrowed from Ar

badrum : cellar [from Gre hypodrome] Alb bodrum, Ser podrum, Tur bodrum borrowed from Ar

ba‘du : later [ba‘uda]

Badw : Beduins [badia] Ind Badui borrowed from Ar

badzr : clitoris [Akk bissuru (vulva)]

bafta : calico [from Per] Ind bafta, Swa bafta borrowed from Ar

bagha : desire [Sem b-gh-y, Akk bu‘‘u (look for), Syr b’a (ask for), BAram b‘h, b‘w, Hrs beayt (wish)]

baghata : come unexpectedly; surprise [Heb ba‘at (frighten)]

baghi : prostitute [bagha]

baghisza : be hated [?]

baghl : mule [Sem b-gh-l, Mal baghal, Ara bgl, Hrs be‘elet, Amh beqlo, Tig beqel] Ind baghal, Per baghl borrowed from Ar

baghta : surprise [baghata]

baha : be beautiful [Sem b-h-w (shine), Heb bahu (hall)]

bahala : curse [Sem b-h-l, Akk balu (supplicate), Heb nivhal (be frightened), Hrs behelet (word)]

bahaq : leprosy [Sem b-h-q, Ara bhq (bright spot, a skin disease), Hrs bihoq, Tig behaq (blisters)]

bahar : spice [LiAr bhar (pepper)] Gre mpahariko, Per bohar, Tur bahar borrowed from Ar

bahara : shine [Sem b-h-r, Akk bararu (flicker), barru (metal), JNA bhr, Amh berra (be bright), berr (silver), Uga brr (tin)]

bahha : reveal [Sem b-w-hh]

bahhatha : look for; research; discuss [Akk be’eshu (stir), Heb bachash]

bahhith : researcher [bahhatha]

bahhr : sea [Sem b-hh-r, Mal bahar, Syr bachra, Amh baher, Tig behar] Ful bahar, Hin bahr, Ind bahar, Per bahhr, Swa bahari borrowed from Ar

bahhri : naval, marine [bahhr] Hin bahri, Ind bahri, Per bahhri, Swa baharia, Tur bahri borrowed from Ar

bahhth : dispute, discussion [bahhatha] Hin bahs, Ind bahas, Per bahhth, Tur bahis borrowed from Ar

bahima : beast, cattle [Sem b-h-m, Mal bhima, Heb behema, JNA bihema, Gez behema (be dumb), Tig behame, Uga bhmt (animal)] Ful bahime, Per bahime borrowed from Ar

bahim : dark [abhama]

bahim : toe [ibham]

bahir : bright [bahara] Per baher borrowed from Ar

bahit : pale [bahita]

bahita : be pale [?]

bahw : saloon [baha]

bai‘ : seller; sale [ba‘a] Per baye‘ borrowed from Ar

ba‘id : remote [ba‘uda]

bain : between [bana] Per bein, Swa baina borrowed from Ar

ba‘ir : camel [Sem b-‘-r, Akk biru (bull), Syr ba‘ira (camel), Hrs be‘ir] Per ba‘ir borrowed from Ar

bais : miserable [baisa]

baisa : be miserable [?]

baisz : egg [basza]

bait : house [bata] Hau baiti, Ind bait, Per beit borrowed from Ar

ba‘ith : motive, reason [ba‘atha] Hin bais, Per ba‘ith borrowed from Ar

baittari : veterinarian [from Late Lat vetarius]

bajjala : honor [?]

baka : weep [Sem b-k-y, Mal beka, Akk baku, Heb bakha, Syr baka, JNA bkhy, Uga bky]

bakara : get up early [Sem b-k-r, Akk bukru (son), bakru (first-born; young camel), Heb boqer (morning), bekher (young camel), bachur (youngster), boger (bachelor), JNA bukhra (first-born), Hrs boker (young camel), Amh bekwer (first-born), Tig bekret (young camel), Uga bkr, bchr (youngster)]

bakima : be dumb [Tig behame]

bakir : early [bakara]

bakr : young camel [bakara]

bakra : spool [Amh bekera] Bul makara, Ser makara, Tur makara borrowed from Ar

bakur : coming early [bakara]

bal : sense, mind [Syr bala]

bal : nevertheless [bila]

ba‘l : master [Sem b-‘-l, Akk belu, Heb ba‘al, Syr ba‘la, Hrs bal (husband), Meh bal, Amh bal, Tig beal, Uga b‘l, Phoen b‘l]

bal‘ : swallowing [bala‘a] Per bal‘ borrowed from Ar

bala : bale [from Ita]

bala : try [?]

bala : trial, calamity, trouble, misfortune, annoyance [bala] Aze bela, Ful albala, Gre mpelas, Hau balai, Hin bala, Ind bala, Kyr balaa, Per bala, Rom belea, Swa balaa, Tur bela, Uzb balo borrowed from Ar

bala : urinate [balla]

bala‘a : swallow [Sem b-l-‘, Mal bala‘, Heb bala‘, JNA bl‘, Hrs bola (eat), Amh bella, Tig bela, Uga bl‘ (swallow)]

balad : country [Mal belt (town)] Per balad borrowed from Ar

balagh : communication [balagha] Per balagh borrowed from Ar

balagha : reach, get to [?]

balagha : eloquence [balagha] Hin balaghat, Per balaghat borrowed from Ar

balahh : dates [?]

balbal : confusion [balbala]

balbala : confuse [Sem b-l-b-l, Heb bilbel, Syr balebal]

balgham : phlegm [from Gre] Hin balgam, Ind balgham, Per balgham borrowed from Ar

balia : be worn [Sem b-l-y, Heb billa (wear), Syr beli‘ (be slain), JNA bly (wear out), Uga blw, bly (consume)]

baligh : major, adult [balagha] Hau balaga, Hin balig, Per baligh borrowed from Ar

balin : worn [balia]

balla : moisten [Sem b-l-l, Akk balalu (mix), Heb balal, Ara bll (moisten)]

ballagha : communicate [balagha]

ballur : crystal [billaur]

ballutt : oak [Sem b-l-tt, Mal balluta, Heb ballutt (acorn), JNA balutta] Ful balluda, Hin balut, Per balutt borrowed from Ar

baltta : axe [from Tur]

bamya : okra [from Tur] Bul bamja, Gre mpamies, Swa mbamia borrowed from Ar

bana : build [Sem b-n-y, Akk banu, Heb bana, JNA bny, Uga bnw, bny, Phoen bny] Ind bena borrowed from Ar

bana : be clear, distinct [Sem b-y-n, Mal bejn, Heb beyn (between), hevin (understand), Syr banath, bath (between), bayen (distinguish), JNA beni (between), Ara byn (among), Uga byn (understand), bn (between)]

banafsha : violet [from Per]

banan : fingertips [ibham]

bandar : port, harbor [from Per] Swa bandari borrowed from Ar

bandura : tomatoes [from Ita pomodoro]

bank : bank [from Eng]

banna : builder [bana]

banttalun : pantaloons [from Ita pantalone]

baqa : cluster, bunch; bundle [?]

baqa : continued existence [baqia] Hin baka, Ind baka, Per baqa borrowed from Ar

baqala : grow, sprout, bloom [Sem b-q-l, Amh beqqele]

baqara : split [Sem b-q-r]

baqar : ox, cattle [Sem b-q-r, Mal baqra (cow), Heb baqar (ox), Syr baqra, Hrs beqeret (cow), Uga bqr (ox), Phoen bqr, Ebl baqaru] Hin bakr, Per baqar borrowed from Ar

baqbuqa : bubble [Sem b-q-b-q, Heb baqbuq (bottle)]

baqdunis : parsley [from Gre makedonos (Macedonian)]

baqia : remain [?]

baqin : remainder [baqia] Hin baki, Per baqi borrowed from Ar

baql : herbs [baqala]

baqla : bean [baqala] Hin bakla, Per baqla borrowed from Ar

baqlawa : a dessert [from Tur] Per baqlawa borrowed from Ar

baqq : bedbug [Akk baqqu (gnat), Syr baqa, JNA baqa, Hrs beqqet (bug)]

baqqal : grocer [baqala] Alb bakall, Bul bakalin, Gre mpakales, Hin bakkal, Per baqqal, Rom bacan, Ser bakal, Tur bakal borrowed from Ar

baqqam : redwood, sappan [?] Hin bakkam, Per baqam borrowed from Ar

baqs : box-tree [from Gre pyxos]

baqshish : tip [from Per bachshesh] Alb bakshish, Bul bakshish, Rom bacsis, Swa bakshishi, Tur bahsis borrowed from Ar

bar : bar [from Eng bar]

bara : cut to shape; sharpen [Sem b-r-y, Heb barar, Phoen br’ (cutter)]

bara : be fallow, uncultivated [Akk aburru (pasture), Ara bwr (be uncultivated)]

bara : innocence [baria]

bara’a : create [Sem b-r-’, Heb bara, Syr bara, JNA bry (happen), birya (creature)]

barad : hail [barada]

barada : be cold [Sem b-r-d, Mal biered (cold), Heb barad (hail), JNA barda, Hrs bered (cold), Amh berrad, Tig bered (hail)]

baraka : kneel [Sem b-r-k, Akk burku, Heb berekh (knee), Syr burka, JNA birka, Hrs bark, Amh temberekkeke (kneel), Tig berek (knee), Uga brk (kneel)]

baraka : blessing [barraka] Ful barka, Hin barkat, Ind berkat, Per barakat, Swa baraka, Tur bereket, Ind berkat borrowed from Ar

barama : turn, screw [?]

bar‘ama : bud, bloom [?]

baraqa : flash [Sem b-r-q, Mal berqa (lightning), Akk berqu, Heb baraq, Syr barqa, JNA birqa, SAr brq, Amh mebreq, Tig berq, Uga brq]

barass : leper [Sem b-r-ss] Per barass borrowed from Ar

baraya : race, contest [?]

baraza : come forward [?]

bard : cold [barada] Per bard borrowed from Ar

bardaqush : marjoram [mardaqush]

barghash : mosquito [burghuth]

barhana : prove [?]

bari : creator [bara] Ind bari, Per bari borrowed from Ar

bari : free from; innocent [baria] Hin bari, Per bari borrowed from Ar

baria : heal [Heb beriut (health), Ara bry (healthy)]

baria : be clear, free (of sin) [Sem b-r-r, Akk baru (wild), Heb bar (wild), Syr ba‘riraya, JNA warya (outside), Amh berrere (run fast), Tig barr (region), Uga brr (be freed)]

barid : post, messenger [from Late Latin veredus] Ful barade, Per barid borrowed from Ar

barid : cold [barada] Swa baridi borrowed from Ar

barihha : leave [LiAr mberihh (yesterday), Heb barach (flee), Uga brch, Phoen brhh]

barim : string [Heb brorim (cord)]

barima : fidget [Ara brm (be exhausted, consumed)]

bariz : prominent [baraza]

barlaman : parliament [from Fre parlament]

barmil : barrel [Mal barmil, Amh bermil]

barnaitta : hat [Amh barnetta]

barnamaj : program [from Middle Per barnamag]

barnia : clay vessel [?]

barq : lightning [baraqa] Hin bark, Per barq, Taj barq borrowed from Ar

barqia : telegram [baraqa]

barquq : plum [from Lat praecox]

barr : open country [baria]

barr : righteous, pious [barra]

barra : be good, pious [?]

barrada : cooler [barada]

barraka : bless [Sem b-r-k, Mal bierek, Heb berakh, Syr burkatha (blessing), JNA birakha, burakhtha, Amh barreke, Uga brk, Phoen brk] Swa bariki borrowed from Ar

barraq : flashing [baraqa] Hin barrak, Per barraq borrowed from Ar

barri : wild [baria]

barrima : cork-screw [barama] Hau barima borrowed from Ar

barud : gunpowder [from Gre pyrides] Alb barut, Bul barut, Ful barudu, Gre mparouti, Per barut, Ser barut, Swa baruti, Tur barut borrowed from Ar

baruda : be cold [barada]

barwaz : frame [?]

barzach : isthmus [?] Per barzach borrowed from Ar

basatta : spread out [Sem b-s-tt and f-s-tt, Heb pashatt, Syr peshatt, JNA pshtt]

basha : be miserable [Akk bashu (be ashamed), Heb bosh]

bashar : humanity [Akk bishru (small child), Heb basar (meat), JNA pisra (humanity), BAram bisra, Uga bshr, Phoen bshr]

bashara : bring news [Akk busurtu (news), Heb besora, Mal bxara (news), basra (prediction), Hrs abeser (announce), Amh besrat (news), Tig bshr (announce), Uga bshrt] Swa bashiri borrowed from Ar

bashara : skin [bashar]

basharia : humankind [bashar] Per bashariyat, Tur beseriyet borrowed from Ar

bashasha : friendliness [bassha]

bashi‘a : be ugly [?]

basil : bold [basula]

basitt : simple [Heb pashutt]

bassa : ember [OS bac]

bassa : spy [Sem b-ss-y]

bassal : onions [Sem b-s-l, Mal basla, Akk bisru (leek), Heb batzal (onion), JNA bissla, Hrs bessel]

bassama : press, stamp [from Tur basma]

bassaqa : spew [Sem b-ss-q, Tig bertsheqe]

bassar : sight [bassura]

bassha : look in a friendly way [?]

bassira : insight, prudence [bassura] Ful basira, Hau basira, Per bassirat, Swa busara borrowed from Ar

bassura : look, inspect [Uga tbssr (control)]

basula : be bold [?]

basur : haemorrhoids [?] Ful baksur, Hau basur, Ind bawasir, Per bawasir, Tur basur borrowed from Ar

ba‘sz : a part of sg; some, various [ba‘sza] Hin baz borrowed from Ar

basza : lay eggs [Sem b-y-d, EgAr beida (egg), Mal bajda, abjad (white), Akk pessu (white), Heb betza (egg), Syr beytha, JNA beta, Amh betsha (yellow)]

ba‘sza : cut to parts [basza‘a]

basza‘a : cut up; carry on trade [Sem b-sz-‘, JNA bz’, Uga bss‘]

bata : spend the night [Sem b-y-t, Akk bitu (house), Heb bayit, Syr baytha, bath, JNA betha, Meh beyt, Amh bet, Tig bet, Uga bt, Phoen bt]

bata : cut off [?]

bataka : split [Sem b-t-k, Akk bataqu (cleave)]

batala : separate [Sem b-t-l]

batara : cut off [Sem b-t-r]

ba‘tha : mission [ba‘atha]

bathan : cobra [Sem b-th-n, Akk bashmu, Heb peten (viper), Syr patna, Uga bthn, Ebl bashanu]

batrul : petrol [from Eng petrol]

batt : duck [battbatta] Per batt, Swa bata

batta : leather jug [Sem b-tt, Akk battu (vessel), Syr battitha (jug)]

batta : calf of the leg [?]

battahha : lie prone [Sem b-tt-hh]

battal : void [battala] Per battal, Swa batili, Tur batil borrowed from Ar

battal : hero [battula]

battala : annul, vacate [Sem b-tt-l, Mal battal, Heb bittel, Syr bettal, JNA battila (idle)] Ind batal, Swa batili borrowed from Ar

battania : bed-sheet [battuna]

battaria : battery [from Eng]

battattis : potatoes [from Eng]

battbatta : quack [onomatop.; Syr batta (duck)]

battha : spread [?]

batti : slow [battua]

battia : jar, jug [Ara btty]

battich : melon [from OEg bittka]

battini : inner [battn]

battn : belly, inside [battuna]

battrach : botargo [from OEg]

battraq : patriarch [from Gre patriarchos]

battua : be slow [?]

battula : be bold [?]

battuna : line (clothes) [Heb betten (belly)]

batul : virgin [Akk batultu, Heb betula, Uga btlt]

batula : birch [from Latin betula]

ba‘uda : be far [Sem b-‘-d, Mal boghod (distant), Uga b‘d (back)]

baul : urine [bala] Hau bawali, Per boul borrowed from Ar

bauwab : doorman [bab] Per bawwab, Swa bawabu borrowed from Ar

bauwaba : gate [bab]

ba‘usz : mosquito [barghash]

bayan : clarification, explanation [bana] Hau bayani, Hin bayan, Per bayan, Tur beyan borrowed from Ar

bayya‘ : seller [ba‘a]

bayyana : clarify, explain [bana]

bazaqa : spew [Sem b-z-q, Tig bozeqe]

bazara : scatter, sow [Sem b-z-r, Syr bazra (seed), Hrs bezar (peppers)]

bazilla : peas [from Ita piselli] Tur bezelye borrowed from Ar

bazin : hawk [from Per baz] Hin baz borrowed from Ar

bazz : fabric, linen [buss] Per bazz borrowed from Ar

bazza : plunder [Sem b-z-z, Heb bazaz, Ara bzz]

bazzaqa : cobra; snail [bazaqa]

bazzaz : draper [bazz] Hin bazzaz, Per bazzaz borrowed from Ar

bi : at [Sem b-, Mal bi-, Heb be-, Syr be-, Sab b, Amh ba, Uga b, Phoen b]

bid‘a : heresy [badda‘a] Ful bidua, Per bed‘at borrowed from Ar

bidaya : beginning [bada]

bigha : prostitution [bagha]

bikr : virgin [?] Ful bikra, Ind bikir, Per bekr, Swa bikira borrowed from Ar

bikr : first-born [bakara]

bila : without [Sem b-l, Mal bla, Akk balu, Heb beli, Ara bl’, bly, Uga bl, Phoen bl, ’bl (no)] Hin bila, Per bela, Swa bila borrowed from Ar

bilad : country [balad]

billaur : crystal [from Gre beryllion] Alb bilur, Ind hablur, ablor, Hin billaur, Per bolur, Swa bilauri, Tur billur borrowed from Ar

bin : son [tabanna] Ind bin, Per ben, Swa bin borrowed from Ar

bina : building; foundation [bana] Alb bina, Hin bina, Ind bina, Per bana, Tur bina, Ind bina borrowed from Ar

binia : structure [bana] Tur bünye borrowed from Ar

binssir : ring finger [?] Per bensser borrowed from Ar

bint : daughter [tabanna] Ind bint, Per bent, Swa binti borrowed from Ar

biqala : grocery [baqala]

bir : a well [Sem b-’-r, Mal bir, Akk buru, Heb beer, Ara b’r, Phoen b’r, JNA bera]

biraz : excrement [tabarraza]

birfir : purple [from Lat purpur]

Birjis : Jupiter [from Per Berjis]

birka : pool [Heb brekha, JNA birke, Uga brkt] Per berke, Swa birika borrowed from Ar

birkar : compass [from Per parkar] Swa bikari borrowed from Ar

birr : piousness, goodness [barra]

birsim : clover [from OEg]

bisatt : spread out; carpet [basatta] Hin bisat, Per bisatt borrowed from Ar

bishara : tidings [Sem b-s-r, Mal bxara, basra (prediction), Akk bussurtu, Heb besora]

bisz‘ : some [basza‘a] Per ba‘szi, Swa baadhi borrowed from Ar

bisza‘a : goods [basza‘a]

bittaqa : ticket [from Late Gre pittakion]

bittriq : aristocrat [from Lat patricius]

biyanu : piano [from Eng piano]

bubu : pupil of the eye [Heb bava]

buchar : steam; fever [?] Ful buharu, Hin bukhar, Per bochar borrowed from Ar

buchl : avarice [bachila]

bu‘d : distance [ba‘uda]

budza : ice cream [from Tur buz]

bughia : wish, desire [bagha]

bughsz : hatred [baghisza]

buhhaira : lake [bahhr]

buhma : back [Uga bmt]

buka : crying [baka]

bukra : early morning; tomorrow [bakara]

bulad : steel [fuladh]

bulbul : nightingale [onomat.] Alb bilbil, Hin bulbul, Kyr bulbul, Per bolbol, Tur bülbül, Uzb bulbul borrowed from Ar

bulis : police [from Eng police]

bul‘um : throat [Ara bul‘uma] Per bal‘um borrowed from Ar

bum : owl [JNA buma] Hin bum, Per bum borrowed from Ar

bunduq : hazelnut; bullet [funduq]

bunduqia : rifle, gun [funduq] Ful bindiga, Hin banduk, Per bondoq, Swa bunduki borrowed from Ar

bunia : structure [bana] Per bonye, Tur bünye borrowed from Ar

bunn : coffee beans [from Ethiopian, cp. Amh bunna (coffee)] Per bon, Swa buni borrowed from Ar

bunni : coffee-colored, brown [bunn]

buq : trumpet [Sem b-w-q] Per buq borrowed from Ar

bur : fallow (land) [bara]

burd : fabric; cloak; screen [?] Per bord borrowed from Ar

burdaya : curtain [burd]

burghi : screw [from Tur burgu] Alb burgji borrowed from Ar

burghul : groats [from Gre pligouri] Alb bullgur, Gre mplougouri, Per barghul, Tur bulgur borrowed from Ar

burghuth : flea [Sem b-r-gh-th, Mal berghud, Akk per‘ashu, pershau, Heb par‘osh]

burhan : proof [barhana] Per borhan borrowed from Ar

burj : tower [from Gre pyrgos] Hin burj, Per borj, Taj burj, Tur burc borrowed from Ar

burkan : volcano [from Lat Vulcanus]

burma : pot [Mal borma]

burnus : cloak [from Gre birrhos] Per bornos, Tur burnus borrowed from Ar

bursh : mat [?]

bursham : waffle [?]

burttum : trunk [?]

burtuqal : oranges [from Portuguese Portugal]

buruda : cold, freeze [barada]

bur‘um : bud [bar‘ama]

burunjuk : gauze [?]

burzuq : sidewalk [?]

bushra : good news [bishara]

busr : unripe dates [Syr besre, Hrs beser]

buss : fabric [Ara bwtz]

bustan : garden [from Per bostan] Ind bustan, Swa bustani, Tur bostan borrowed from Ar

butt : slowness [battua]

buttm : terebinth [Akk buttnu, buttumtu, JNA bittma]

buzaq : saliva [bazaqa] Per bozaq borrowed from Ar

buzz : teat, udder [Uga bz]


CH Edit

cha : the letter ch [Heb chet]

chaba : conceal [Sem ch-b-y, Mal heba, Heb hechbi]

chabala : tangle [Sem ch-b-l, Mal habbel]

chabar : news, information [chabbara] Aze xeber, Bul haber, Ful habaru, Gre hampari, Hau labari, Hin khabar, Ind khabar, Kyr kavar, Per chabar, Rom habar, Swa habari, Tat kheber, Tur haber borrowed from Ar

chabara : examine [?]

chabatta : hit, batter [Sem ch-b-tt, Mal habbat, Akk chabattu (rob), Heb chabatt (beat), Syr chabatt, Uga chbt (rob)]

chabaza : bake [Sem ch-b-z, Mal hobz (bread), JNA khabaza (baker), Hrs chabz (bread)]

chabbara : inform [Sem ch-b-r, Mal habbar (announce), Akk ibru, ebru (associate), Heb chaver (friend), Syr chabra, JNA khora, Amh abbere (join up), hebret (alliance), mahber (society), Uga hhbr (companion), Phoen hhbr]

chabbaz : baker [chabaza] Per chabbaz borrowed from Ar

chabir : expert [chabara]

chabith : wicked [chabutha] Aze xebis, Hin khabis, Ind khabis, Per chabis borrowed from Ar

chabtt : failure; craze [chabatta] Hin khabt, Per chabtt borrowed from Ar

chabutha : be wicked [?]

chacham : rabbi [Sem hh-k-m, Heb chakham (wise man)] Per chacham, Tur haham borrowed from Ar

chada‘a : deceive [?]

chadama : serve, be employed [Mal hadem]

chadama : servants [chadama] Per chadame, Tur hademe borrowed from Ar

chadara : keep secluded [Sem ch-d-r, Heb cheder (room), Uga hhdr, Phoen hhdr]

chadd : cheek [Hrs hhadd-]

chadda : make furrows [Akk chadadu (make incisions)]

chadij : miscarriage [Sem ch-d-g]

chadim : servant [chadama] Hin khadim, Ind khadam, Per chadem borrowed from Ar

chadira : be numb [Mal hedla (numbness)]

chafa : fear [?]

chafada : lower, let down [?]

chafara : guard [Sem ch-p-r]

chafasza : make sink [Heb chafatz (bend down)]

chaffa : be light (of weight) [Mal hafif (light), Hrs chef]

chaffafa : make light (of weight), relieve [chaffa]

chafi : secret, hidden [chafia] Per chafi, Tur hafi borrowed from Ar

chafia : be hidden [?]

chafif : light (of weight) [chaffa] Aze xefif, Per chafif, Swa hafifu, Tur hafif borrowed from Ar

chafira : be shy [Sem ch-p-r, Heb chafar (be ashamed), Syr achfar, Amh affere]

chail : horses [Hrs cheyol]

chaima : tent [chayyama] Hin khaima, khema, Ind khemah, Per cheime, Swa hema borrowed from Ar

chain : traitor [chana] Aze xain, Per chaen borrowed from Ar

chair : good [chara]

chair : goodness, benefit, profit; charity; prosperity, happiness [chara] Aze xeyir, Ful hairu, Hau alheri, Hin khair, Ind khair, Per cheir, Swa heri, Tat kheer borrowed from Ar

chaitt : thread [chatta]

chal : uncle [?]

chala : imagine [Sem ch-y-l]

chala : be empty [JNA khly]

chala : aunt [chal] Aze xala, Hin khala, Per chale borrowed from Ar

chala : emptiness [chala] Per chala borrowed from Ar

chala‘a : pull out, take off [?]

chalada : be eternal [Sem ch-l-d]

chalaf : descendant [chalafa] Aze xelef, Per chalaf borrowed from Ar

chalafa : be contradictory; disobey; rebel [JNA khlf (deviate)] Swa halifu borrowed from Ar

chalafa : follow [Sem ch-l-p, Akk chalpu (substitute), Heb hechlif (change), Syr chalef, JNA khlp (substitute), Amh allefe (pass), Tig hhalfa]

chalal : breach; interval [challa] Hin khalal, Per chalal borrowed from Ar

chalala : be friends [?]

chalaqa : create [Sem ch-l-q, Mal chalaq, Heb chilleq (allot), JNA khlq (create)] Swa huluku borrowed from Ar

chalass : freed; liberation, rescue [chalassa] Aze xilas, Hin khalas, Per chalass borrowed from Ar

chalassa : be pure, true [?]

chalassa : be free, escape [Sem ch-l-ss, JNA khlss, Phoen hhlss]

chalatta : mix [Sem ch-l-tt, Hrs chelot]

chalf : back; behind [chalafa] Per chalf borrowed from Ar

chali : empty [chala] Hin khali, Ind khali, Per chali, Tur hali borrowed from Ar

chalid : eternal [chalada]

chalifa : caliph [chalafa] Hin khalifa, Ind khalifah, Per chalife borrowed from Ar

chalij : gulf [?] Hin khalij, Per chalij borrowed from Ar

chalil : friend [chalala] Ind khalil, Per chalil borrowed from Ar

chaliq : creator [chalaqa] Hin khalik, Ind khalik, Per chaleq borrowed from Ar

chaliqa : nature [chalaqa] Ind khalikah, Per chaliqe borrowed from Ar

chaliss : pure [chalassa] Aze xalis, Hin khalis, Ind khalis, Per chaless borrowed from Ar

chall : vinegar [challa] Per chall borrowed from Ar

challa : be sour [Mal hall (vinegar), Syr chala]

challa : bore through [Sem ch-l-l, Heb chalal (space)]

challafa : leave behind [chalafa]

challaq : creative [chalaqa] Per challaq borrowed from Ar

chalq : creation; people, population [chalaqa] Aze xalq, Hin khalk, Kyr kalk, Per chalq, Tat khalik, Tur halk borrowed from Ar

chalua : be lonely [?]

chalwa : loneliness; retreat [chalua] Hau halwa, Ind khalwat, Per chalwat borrowed from Ar

cham : rough [from Per]

chamala : be obscure [?]

chamara : ferment [Sem ch-m-r, Akk chimru (spirit), Syr chamra (wine), JNA khamra, khmira (yeast), Uga chmr (wine)]

chamassa : be empty, hungry [?]

chamir : leaven; dough [chamara] Aze xemir, Hin khamir, Ind kamir, Kyr kamyr, Per chamir, Swa hamira, Tat kamir, Tur hamur borrowed from Ar

chamiri : leavened [chamara] Hin khamira, Ind khamiri borrowed from Ar

chamis : fifth [chamsa]

chamis : Thursday [chamsa] Ful alhamisa, Ind kamis, khamis, Per chamis borrowed from Ar

chamma : sweep [Syr chemam]

chammana : estimate [?]

chamr : spirit, wine [chamara] Ind khamar, Per chamr borrowed from Ar

chamsa : five [Sem ch-m-sh, Mal hamsa, Akk chamish, Heb chamesh, Syr chamsha, JNA khamsha, Amh ammest, Uga chmsh, Phoen chmsh]

chamsin : fifty [chamsa] Hau hamsin, Swa hamsini borrowed from Ar

chamur : dough [chamara] Tur hamur borrowed from Ar

chan : country inn [from Per] Bul han, Gre hani, Rom han, Tur han borrowed from Ar

chana : be treacherous [?]

chanaqa : strangle [Sem ch-n-qa, Mal hanaq, Akk chanaqu (press), Heb chanaq (strangle), Syr chenaq, JNA khnq, Uga chq, Phoen chnq]

chandaq : moat [from Per kandak] Hin khandak borrowed from Ar

chanith : effeminate [?]

chanjar : dagger [from Per] Alb hanxhar, Aze xencer, Hin khanjar, Hun handzsar, Ind khanjar, Kyr kanjar, Tur hancer borrowed from Ar

chara : choose [Sem ch-y-r, Mal hatar]

charab : ruined [charaba] Hin kharab, Ind kharab, Per charab, Tur harap borrowed from Ar

charaba : destroy [Sem ch-r-b, Akk charabu, Heb charav, Syr cherab] Swa haribu borrowed from Ar

charaba : ruins [charaba] Per charabe, Tat kherabe, Tur harabe borrowed from Ar

charaj : tax [charaja] Alb harac, Bul harch, Ful haraji, Gre haratsi, Hau haraji, Hin khiraj, kharch, Hun haracs, Per charaj, Tur harac borrowed from Ar

charaja : come out, leave [Sem ch-r-g, EgAr charag, Mal hareg, Heb choreg (step-son), JNA khurga, Hrs cherog (go out)]

charaja : taxes, tributes [charaja] Ind kharajat, Per charajat borrowed from Ar

charama : pierce [Sem ch-r-m, JNA khrm, Meh charmit (notch)]

charaqa : tear apart [Sem ch-r-q, Heb charaq (grate)]

charasan : concrete [from Per char-sang]

charatta : carve, lathe [Sem ch-r-tt, Heb charatt, Uga chrtt (pluck)]

charaza : perforate [Heb charaz (string together), Syr cheraz]

charbasha : scribble [Mal harbesh]

chardal : mustard [Heb chardal, JNA khardalle] Aze xardal, Per chardal, Tur hardal borrowed from Ar

charia : empty the bowels, defecate [Sem ch-r-y, Heb chara (excrement), JNA ikhre, Amh arra (defecate), Tig hhar (excrement), Uga chr (empty bowels)] Swa hara borrowed from Ar

chariba : be destroyed [charaba]

charif : autumn [Sem ch-r-p, Mal harifa, Akk charaptu, Heb choref (winter), SAr chrf (year)] Hin kharif, Per charif borrowed from Ar

charifa : talk idly; tell tales [Mal harrief]

charij : being out of; external; foreign country [charaja] Hin kharij, Per charej borrowed from Ar

charitta : map [from Gre charte] Aze xerite, Hin kharita, Per charitte, Taj kharita, Tur harita, harta borrowed from Ar

charj : expense, cost [charaja] Aze xerc, Hin kharj, Per charj, Tur harc borrowed from Ar

charraja : train [Mal harreg]

chartit : rhinoceros [?]

chartush : cartridge [from Fre cartouche]

charuf : wether, castrated ram [Heb charif (sharp)]

charwa : ricinus [?]

chas : lettuce [Akk chasu, JNA khasse]

chasa : be mean [?]

chasafa : sink [Sem ch-s-p, Uga chsp (wilt), Phoen hhsp (go down)]

chasara : loss [chasira] Hau hasara, Per chasarat, Swa hasara borrowed from Ar

chashab : wood [?]

chashia : fear [?]

chashia : fear [chasia] Per chasiyat borrowed from Ar

chashin : rough [chashuna] Per chashen borrowed from Ar

chashuna : be rough [?]

chasira : lose [Sem ch-s-r, Heb chassar (lack) Syr chesar (lose), JNA khsr, Uga chsr, Phoen mchsr (a need)]

chasis : mean, base [chasa] Hin khasis, Per chasis borrowed from Ar

chass : special; especially [chassa] Aze xas, Hin khas, Ind khas, Per chass, Swa hasa borrowed from Ar

chassa : castrate [Sem ch-ss-y, Mal haswa (testicle), JNA khssy (castrate)]

chassa : excel [?]

chassaba : be fruitful [?]

chassama : quarrel [?]

chassama : subtract [?]

chassi : eunuch [chassa] Per chassi borrowed from Ar

chassia : specialty, character [chassa] Aze xasiyyet, Ind khasiat, Per chassiyat borrowed from Ar

chassla : character [?] Per chassla borrowed from Ar

chassm : opponent [chassama] Per chassm borrowed from Ar

chassr : hip, waist [ichtassara]

chasza‘a : be dependent [?]

chaszaba : paint [?]

chaszir : green [chaszira] Per chaszra borrowed from Ar

chaszira : be green [LiAr achdar (green), Heb chatzir (greenery)]

chatam : concluded [chatama] Ind khatam borrowed from Ar

chatam : ring [chatama]

chatama : seal [Sem ch-t-m, Mal hatem (ring), Heb chatam (seal), Syr chetham, JNA khitma, Hrs chotem (ring), Amh ateme (print), mahtem (stamp), Phoen chtm]

chatan : son-in-law [Sem ch-t-n, Akk chatanu, Heb chatan, JNA khitna, Uga chtn]

chatan : circumcision [chatana] Ind khatan, Per chatan borrowed from Ar

chatana : circumcise [?]

chatim : seal [chatama] Hau hatimi, Per chatem borrowed from Ar

chatm : end [chatama] Hin khatm, Ind hatam, Per chatm, Swa hatima borrowed from Ar

chatt : line [chatta] Aze xett, Hin khat, Ind khat, Per chatt, Tur hat borrowed from Ar

chatta : sew [Sem ch-w-tt, Heb chutt (thread), JNA khytt (sew), Hrs cheyot, qaid (rope), Soq qaid (rope)]

chatta : draw (a line), write [Heb chatta (dig, scratch), Syr chatteyttutha (line), Ara chatt (dig, scratch), chattett]

chatta : step [?]

chatta : mistake, error [chattia] Aze xeta, Hin khata, Per chatta, Swa hatia, Tur hata borrowed from Ar

chattaba : hold a speech [Ara chatteb (praise)]

chattar : importance; danger [chattura] Hau hadari, Hin khatra, Per chattar, Swa hatari borrowed from Ar

chattara : swing; realise [chittr]

chattatta : plan [?]

chatti : mistaken; guilty [chattia] Per chatti borrowed from Ar

chattia : commit error, sin [Sem ch-tt-y, Mal htija (sin), Akk hhattu, Heb chatta, Syr chettha, JNA khatta, Amh hattiat, khittitha, Uga chtt’ (do wrong)]

chattib : speaker; preacher [chattaba] Per chatteb, chattib borrowed from Ar

chattir : mood; idea; memory; favor, consideration [chattara] Gre hatiri, Hin khatir, Per chatter, Rom hatir, Tat kheter, Tur hatir borrowed from Ar

chattir : dangerous; important [chattura] Per chattir borrowed from Ar

chattira : memory; idea; favor, consideration [chattara] Aze xatire, Per chattere, Tat khatire, Tur hatira borrowed from Ar

chattwa : a step [chatta] Per chattwe borrowed from Ar

chattura : be important [?]

chatun : lady, wife [from Old Iranian] Aze qadin, Per chatun, Tat khatin, Tur kadin borrowed from Ar

chauch : peach [Sem ch-w-ch, Mal hawha, Akk chacchu (plum), JNA khokha (peach)]

chaucha : mouth [SAr ch-h, Jib choh, Gez chochet]

chauf : fear [chafa] Hin khauf, Per chouf, Swa hofu borrowed from Ar

chaur : gulf [Sem ch-w-r, Akk churru (hole), Heb chor, Uga chr]

chawa : be empty [Sem ch-w-y, Hrs chah (mouth)]

chayyama : pitch a tent [Sem ch-y-m, JNA khema (tent), Hrs chimet, Gez chaymat, Tig hhaymet (hut), Uga chmt (tent)]

chayyatt : tailor [chatta] Per chayyatt borrowed from Ar

chazaf : pottery, china [Sem ch-z-p, Akk chassbu (pottery), Heb chatzaf (shard), Syr chetzfa (jar)]

chazama : perforate; string up [Sem ch-z-m, Heb chazam (cut off), Syr chezam]

chazana : heap up, store [Sem ch-s-n, Ara chesan (be strong)]

chazia : be shameful [?]

chazina : treasury [chazana] Aze xezine, Hin khazana, Per chazine, Swa hazina, Tat khezine, Tur hazine borrowed from Ar

chazna : cash-box [chazana] Tat kazna, Tur hazne borrowed from Ar

chazzaf : potter [chazaf] Per chazzaf borrowed from Ar

chial : thought; phantasy; opinion [chala] Aze xeyal, Hin khayal, Ind khayal, Per chiyal borrowed from Ar

chiana : crime; betrayal [chana] Aze xeyanet, Hin khayanat, Ind khiyanat, Per chiyanat, Tat khiyanet borrowed from Ar

chiar : choice, option [chara] Ind khiar, Per chiyar, Swa hiari borrowed from Ar

chiar : cucumber [from Per chiyar] Aze xiyar, Tat kiyar, Tur hiyar borrowed from Ar

chibra : skills [chabara] Per chebre borrowed from Ar

chida‘ : deceit [chada‘a] Per chod‘e, Swa hadaa borrowed from Ar

chidma : service, task, work; ministry [chadama] Aze xidmet, Hau hidima, Hin khidmat, Ind khidmat, Kyr kyzmat, Per chedmat, Swa huduma, Tat khezmet, Tur hizmet, Uzb hizmat borrowed from Ar borrowed from Ar

chidr : women’s chamber [chadara]

chil‘a : robe of honor [?] Hin khilat, Per chal‘at borrowed from Ar

chilaf : contrast; error [chalafa] Hin khilaf, Ind khilaf, hilap, Per chelaf, Tur hilaf borrowed from Ar

chilafa : succession; caliphate [chalafa] Hin khilafat, Per chelafat borrowed from Ar

chilala : (in) between [challa]

chinaq : neck [chanaqa]

chindhidh : whirlwind [Uga chdhdh]

chinssir : little finger [Sem ch-ss-r, Syr chessra, Jib chessrer]

chinnuss : pig [Syr chnaytza, chanutza]

chinshar : fern [?]

chinzir : pig [Mal hanzir, Akk chuziru, Heb chazir, JNA khizura, Uga chzr] Ful hinjiru, Per chenzir borrowed from Ar

chirba : ruin [charaba]

chissb : fruitfulness [chassaba] Per chessb borrowed from Ar

chiszab : dye; painting [chaszaba] Hin khizab, Per cheszab borrowed from Ar

chitam : end [chatama] Per chetam, Tur hitam borrowed from Ar

chittab : speech [chattaba] Hin khitab, Per chettab borrowed from Ar

chittam : nose-ring; bridle [Akk chuttimu (snout), Ara chutma, Uga chtm (nose)] Per chettam, Swa hatamu borrowed from Ar

chittr : branch [Sem ch-tt-r, Akk chuttaru, Heb chetter, Syr chuttra, JNA khittra]

chizi : shame, disgrace [chazia] Swa hizi borrowed from Ar

chizna : cash-box, treasury [chazana] Ind khizanah borrowed from Ar

chubbaz : mauve [?] Per chobbaz borrowed from Ar

chubth : wickedness [chabutha] Per chobth borrowed from Ar

chubz : bread [chabaza] Per chobz borrowed from Ar

chuff : slippers [Gez kuf (shoe), Hrs chef (hoof), Amh kuf]

chuffash : bat [chunfus]

chufia : secret; detective [chafia] Aze xefiyye, Hin khufiya, Per chofye, Tur hafiye borrowed from Ar

chulassa : essence [chalassa] Hin khulasa, Per cholasse borrowed from Ar

chuld : mole [Sem ch-l-d, LiAr chlund, Heb choled (skink), chulda (rat), JNA khulda (chamaeleon), Tig huled (mole)] Per chold borrowed from Ar

chuld : eternity [chalada] Per chold borrowed from Ar

chulq : character [chalaqa] Ind khuluk, Per cholq, Swa hulka, Tat kholik borrowed from Ar

chultta : participation [chalatta] Hau hulda, Per choltte borrowed from Ar

chums : fifth part [chamsa] Ful humsa, Hau humusi, Per choms borrowed from Ar

chunfus : black beetle, scarab [LiAr chunufse, Heb chipushit, Ara chrpws, chrpd (bat)] Per chonfos borrowed from Ar

chur : excrement [charia]

churafa : fable; idle talk; prejudice [charifa] Hin khurafat, Ind khurafat, Per chorafat, Tat khorafat borrowed from Ar

churi : priest [from Gre khoros]

churnub : carob [hharub] Per charnub borrowed from Ar

churr : hole [Sem ch-r-r, Akk chararu (bore), Heb charar, Syr chura (hole), Hrs cherrayt]

churttum : trunk [Heb charttom (beak)] Per chorttum, Tur hortum borrowed from Ar

churuj : exit [charaja] Per choruj borrowed from Ar

chuss : palm leaves [Sem ch-w-s]

chussba : fruitfulness [chassaba]

chussia : testicle [chassa] Per chossye borrowed from Ar

chussla : cluster [Heb chotzelet (mat)]

chussma : quarrel [chassama] Hau husuma, Ind khusmat, Per chossumat borrowed from Ar

chussuss : specialty; opportunity [chassa] Ind khusus, Per chossuss, Tur husus borrowed from Ar

chussussan : especially [chassa] Aze xüsusan, Hin khususan, Per chossussan borrowed from Ar

chussussi : special, private [chassa] Per chossussi, Swa hususa borrowed from Ar

chussussia : specialty, originality, peculiarity [chassa] Aze xüsusiyet, Hin khususiyat, Per chossussiyat borrowed from Ar

chusuf : eclipse [chasafa] Hau husufi, Per chosuf borrowed from Ar

chuszar : vegetables [chaszira] Per choszarat borrowed from Ar

chutna : circumcision [chatana] Hin khatna, Per chotne borrowed from Ar

chutta : plan [chattatta]

chuttba : speech; sermon, address [chattaba] Hau huduba, Hin khutba, Ind khutbah, Per chottbe, Swa hotuba borrowed from Ar


D Edit

da‘a : call, claim [Sem d-‘-w, Tig dey] Swa dai borrowed from Ar

da‘ama : support [?]

dabara : turn the back; follow [Sem d-b-r, Akk dabaru (make turn back), Syr debar (lead), Uga dbr (turn the back)]

dabba : crawl [Sem d-b-b]

dabba : drive away [Sem d-b-b, Ara dbb (be an enemy)]

dabbaja : decorate [from Middle Per debag (brocade)]

dabbara : lead, control, plan [dabara]

dabbur : hornet [Sem d-b-r, Heb dabbur, Heb devora (bee), Syr debura (hornet), JNA dibbora (wasp), Hrs dheber (bee)]

dabdaba : trample [Sem d-b-d-b]

dabdaba : noise; pomp [dabdaba] Aze debdebe, Hin dabdaba, Per dabdabe, Tur debdebe borrowed from Ar

dabiqa : cling, adhere [Sem d-b-q, Heb davaq, JNA dwq (hold)]

dacchana : smoke [dachina]

dacha : be dizzy [?]

dachala : enter [Gur del (belly)]

dachil : interior; entrance [dachala] Hin dakhil, Per dachel, Tur dahil borrowed from Ar

dachila : interior; entry [dachala] Hin dakhila, Per dachele borrowed from Ar

dachili : inner, interior [dachala] Aze daxili, Hin dakhili, Per dacheli, Tur dahili borrowed from Ar

dachina : be smoky [Hrs nedehh (smoke)]

dachl : entry; income [dachala] Hin dakhl, Per dachl borrowed from Ar

daf‘ : a push (backwards), repelling [dafa‘a] Hin dafa, Per daf‘ borrowed from Ar

daf‘a : push; occasion, time [dafa‘a] Hin dafa, Per daf‘e borrowed from Ar

dafa‘ : defence [dafa‘a] Per defa‘ borrowed from Ar

dafa‘a : push [Sem d-p-‘, Hrs dofa, Gez daf‘-]

dafa‘a : defend [dafa‘a]

dafana : conceal, bury [Sem s-p-n, Mal difen, Akk ssapanu, ssapunu (north), Heb tzofen (code), tzafon (north), Amh ttsheffene (close the eyes), JNA ssafon (north), Phoen sspn]

dafara : push [Sem d-p-r, Amh deffere (dare)]

daff : drum [Sem d-p-p, Heb tof, Uga tp, Amh debeddebe (beat, rap), Phoen mtpp (drummer)] Hin daf, Per daf borrowed from Ar

daff : side (of body) [Heb daf (page), Syr dafa, Hrs deffet (side)]

dafia : be warm [OS dafa, EthSem dfn (bake under ashes)]

dafin : concealed [dafana] Per dafin borrowed from Ar

dafina : buried treasure [dafana] Hin dafina, Per dafine borrowed from Ar

dafn : burial [dafana] Hin dafn, Per dafn borrowed from Ar

daftar : book, account-book, register, notebook, copybook, exercise-book [from Gre diphthera (membrane)] Bul tefter, Ful deftere, Gre tefteri, Hin daftar, Kyr depter, Per daftar, Swa daftari, Taj daftar, Tur defter, Uzb daftar borrowed from Ar

dagh : brand [from Per] Hin dagh borrowed from Ar

daghdagha : tickle [onomat.]

daghdagha : a tickle [daghdagha] Per daghdaghe borrowed from Ar

dahana : smear; rub in [Sem d-h-n, Syr dehan (become fat), JNA dhn]

dahaq : shackle [Syr dhq]

dahasa : trample [dasa]

dahhara : drive away [Sem d-hh-r, Gez dhhr]

dahhasha : press in [Heb dachass (compress)]

dahia : be clever [?]

dahin : clever, sly; genius [dahia] Aze dahi, Per dahi, Tur dahi borrowed from Ar

dahisha : be amazed [?]

dahsha : amazement; panic [dahisha] Hin dahshat, Per dehshat borrowed from Ar

daidaban : guard [from Per dide-ban]

daim : always, constantly, continuing [dama] Aze daim, Hin daym, Per dayem, Swa daima, Tat daim, Tur daima borrowed from Ar

daimi : constant, continuous [dama] Per dayemi, Tat daimi, Tur daimi borrowed from Ar

dain : debt [dana] Hin dain, Per dein, Swa deni borrowed from Ar

da‘in : motive [da‘a] Per da‘i borrowed from Ar

dair : monastery [dara] Per deyr borrowed from Ar

dair : turning; concerning [dara] Aze dair, Hin dayr, Per dayer, Tur dair borrowed from Ar

daira : circle; district [dara] Aze daire, Hin dayra, Ind daerah, Per dayere, Tur daire borrowed from Ar

daja : be dim [?]

dajaj : poultry [Sem d-g-d-g, Mal tigiegia] Per dojaj borrowed from Ar

dajala : swindle [Sem d-g-l, Syr dagel]

dajana : remain [Sem d-g-n (grains)]

dajana : be dim [Sem d-g-n, Syr degna (blindness)]

dajjal : swindler; antichrist; naughty [dajala] Aze decel, Ful dajjal, Hin dajjal, Per dajjal borrowed from Ar

dajl : swindle, deceit [dajala] Hin dagal, Per dajl borrowed from Ar

dakka : stamp (floor) [Sem d-k-k, Akk dakkanu (doorway), Syr duktha (place), JNA duka, duktha, dikkana (shop), Hrs dikka (roof), Tig dekka (bench)]

dakka : floor, deck; bench [dakka] Per dakke borrowed from Ar

dal : the letter d [Sem d-l, Akk daltu (door), Heb dalet, Uga dlt] Per dal borrowed from Ar

dala : draw (water) [Sem d-l-w, d-l-y, Akk dalu (bucket), Heb deli, JNA dola, Hrs dolew]

dala : change, alternate [Sem d-w-l, Syr dal (move)]

dalafa : ooze [Sem d-l-p, Heb dalaf, JNA dlp, Uga dlp]

dalaka : rub [?]

dalala : guidance, reference [dalla] Per dalalat, Tur delalet borrowed from Ar

daldala : let dangle [Sem d-l-d-l]

dalia : vine; branch [Heb dalia, Syr dalitha]

dalil : indication; evidence [dalla] Aze delil, Ful dalila, Hin dalil, Per dalil, Swa dalili, Tur delil borrowed from Ar

dalla : indicate [Sem d-l-l, Uga dll (broker), Amh dellala]

dalla : suspend [Sem d-l-w]

dalla‘ : watermelon [Heb dela‘at (pumpkin)]

dallal : broker [dalla] Ful dilali, Hau dillali, Hin dallal, Ind dalal, Per dallal, Swa dalali borrowed from Ar

dalw : bucket [dala] Per dalw borrowed from Ar

dam : blood [Sem d-m, Mal demm, Akk damu, Heb dam, Syr dama, JNA dimma, Amh dem, Tig dem, Uga dm, Phoen dm] Per dam, Swa damu borrowed from Ar

dam‘ : tears [dama‘a] Per dam‘ borrowed from Ar

dama : last [Sem d-w-m, Heb domem (still), Hrs adim (stay, dwell), Meh adim, Soq deme (sleep), Uga dmm (be still)]

dama‘a : shed tears [Sem d-m-‘, Akk dimtu (tear), Mal demgha, Heb dim‘a, Syr dem‘etha, JNA dime’tha, Hrs demat, Uga dm‘t, Ebl idma‘atu]

damana : scatter manure [Sem d-m-n, Heb domen (manure)]

damara : be destroyed [Sem d-m-r, Uga dmrn (daring)]

damasa : conceal [Sem d-m-s, JNA dms (sink)]

damdama : rumble [Sem d-m-d-m, onomat.]

damila : heal [?]

damin : bloody [dam]

damma : paint red [Sem d-m, Akk adammu (red), Heb adom, Gur dama (reddish), Uga ’dm (be red)]

dammara : destroy [damara]

dana : convert, become pious [Sem d-y-n, Akk dianu (condemn), Heb din, Syr dan, JNA dayyan (judge), Amh dannya (arbitrate), Uga dyn]

dana : be near [Sem d-n-y, Syr dana (approach), Hrs deno (conceive a child)]

dana : be lowly [Sem d-n-y]

dana : borrow [?]

danasa : be defiled [Sem d-n-s]

dann : urn, barrel [Sem d-n, Akk dannu, Syr danna]

danna : buzz [Sem d-n-n, Hrs dennet (echo)]

daqal : date palm [Sem d-q-l, Syr deqla]

daqal : mast [Sem d-q-l]

daqiq : thin [daqqa] Aze deqiq, Per daqiq borrowed from Ar

daqiqa : minute [daqqa] Aze deqiqe, Ful dakika, Hin dakika, Per daqiqe, Swa dakika, Taj daqiqa, Tur dakika borrowed from Ar

daqqa : be thin [Sem d-q-q, Mal dqiq (flour), Akk daqaqu (crush), Heb daq (thin), daqqa (minute), JNA dyq (grind), Amh deqiq (thin), Uga dq, Phoen dq]

dar : house [Sem d-w-r, d-y-r, Mal dar, Akk duru (city wall, fortress), Heb dira (apartment), Syr dayar (house), dira (monastery)] Hin dar borrowed from Ar

dara : turn [Sem d-w-r, d-y-r, Akk daru (era), Heb dor (generation), JNA dor, Hrs dawr (turn), Uga drdr (eternity), dr (family circle), Phoen dr]

dara : know [?]

daraj : steps, rank [daraja]

daraja : step [Sem d-r-g, Mal targa (step, degree), Heb darga, Syr daraga, Amh dereja]

daraja : degree, rank, level [daraja] Aze derece, Hin darja, Ind darjah, derajat, Kyr daraja, Per daraje, Swa daraja, Tat deredzhe, Tur derece, Uzb darazha borrowed from Ar

daraka : lowest rung [adraka]

daran : tumor [Tig deren (blister)]

daran : dirt [darina]

darasa : thresh [Sem d-r-sh, Ara drs (tread)]

darasa : study [Sem d-r-sh, Heb darash (preach), Syr derash, Amh derrese (compose), Phoen drsh (seek)]

darb : street, path; passage [Syr darba, Meh darb] Per darb borrowed from Ar

darfil : dolphin [dulfin]

darham : a coin [from Gre drachme] Ind derham, Per darham borrowed from Ar

dariba : be accustomed, practiced [?]

darij : current; colloquial [daraja]

darina : be dirty [?]

darj : insertion, entry; a record [daraja] Hin darj, Per darj borrowed from Ar

darra : run freely [Sem d-r-r, Akk dararu]

darraba : train sy [dariba]

darraja : insert [daraja]

darraja : bicycle [daraja]

darrasa : teach [darasa]

dars : lesson [darasa] Aze ders, Ful darse, Hau daras, Hin dars, Per dars, Swa darasa, Taj dars, Tat deres, Tur ders, Uzb dars borrowed from Ar

darssini : cinnamon [dar + ssini] Bul darchin, Swa dalasini, Tur tarcin borrowed from Ar

darz : seam [from Per]

dasa : trample, tread [Sem d-w-s, d-y-s, Heb dash (stamp), Syr dash, JNA dysh, d’sh, Hrs dos, Tig dehasa]

dasam : fatness [Akk dashnu (mighty), Heb dashan (fat)]

dassa : bury [Sem d-s-s]

dastur : custom; constitution [from Per] Hin dastur, Swa desturi borrowed from Ar

daucha : dizziness [dacha]

dauka : tumult [Ara dwk]

daula : force, majesty, state [dala] Aze dövlet, Hin daulat, Ind daulat, Per doulat, Swa dola, Tat deület, Tur devlet, Uzb davlat borrowed from Ar

daum : duration [dama] Per doum borrowed from Ar

daur : a round; rotation, epoch [dara] Hin daur, Per dour, Tur devir, Uzb davr borrowed from Ar

daura : turn, revolution, circulation, period [dara] Hin daura, Per doure, Swa duara, Tur devre, Uzb davra borrowed from Ar

dauran : epoch [dara] Hin dauran, Per douran borrowed from Ar

dauri : sparrow [LiAr dweri, Heb dror]

dauri : periodic [dara] Per douri borrowed from Ar

dauria : circulation, patrol [dara] Swa doria borrowed from Ar

dauwana : register, write in [diwan]

dawa : treat, heal [?]

dawa : inkpot [maybe from OEg like Heb dyo (ink)] Ful dawa, Hin davat, Ind dawat, Per dawat borrowed from Ar

dawa : medicine [dawa] Hin dava, Per dawa, Swa dawa, Tur deva, Uzb davo borrowed from Ar

da‘wa : a call [da‘a] Hin davat, Per da‘wat borrowed from Ar

da‘wa : claim; lawsuit, legal procedure [da‘a] Hin dava, Ind daawa, Kyr doo, Per da‘wa, Swa daawa, Tat degve, Tur dava borrowed from Ar

dawam : duration [dama] Hin davam, Per dawam, Tat devam, Tur devam borrowed from Ar

dawan : disease [Sem d-w-y, Akk diu, Heb dawah (ill), Syr dawya (miserable), Uga dwy (be sick)]

dawaran : turning, circulation [dara] Hin dauran, Per dawaran borrowed from Ar

dia : ransom [wada] Ind diyat, Per diyat, Swa dia borrowed from Ar

diana : honesty; religion [dana] Hin dayanat, Per diyanat, Tur diyanet borrowed from Ar

diar : region [dara] Hin dayar, Per diyar borrowed from Ar

dibaj : brocade [dabbaja] Ind dibaj, Per diba, dibaj borrowed from Ar

dibaja : ornament; preface [dabbaja] Per dibache, Swa dibaji borrowed from Ar

diblumasi : diplomacy [from Eng diplomacy]

dibs : mead [Sem d-b-s, Akk dishpu (honey), Heb dvash, JNA dabasha, dusha]

difa‘ : pushing back, defense [dafa‘a] Per defa‘ borrowed from Ar

difli : oleander [from Gre daphne (laurel)] Per defli borrowed from Ar

dihliz : corridor [from Per]

dihsha : amazement; fright; horror [dahisha] Aze dehset, Ind dahsyat, Per dehshat, Tat dehshet, Tur dehset borrowed from Ar

Dijla : Tigris [from Sum] Per Dajle borrowed from Ar

dik : cock [Amh dakkeyye (duck)] Per dik borrowed from Ar

dimagh : brain [Sem d-m-gh, Amh demah (crown of the head), Tig demqet] Hin dimag, Per demagh, Tur dimag borrowed from Ar

dimn : manure [damana] Per demn borrowed from Ar

dimukratti : democratic [from Gre demokratikos]

din : religion [from Per din] Aze din, Ful dina, Hau addini, Hin din, Ind din, Kyr din, Swa dini, Tat din, Tur din, Uzb din borrowed from Ar

dinar : a coin [from Lat denarius] Hin dinar, Per dinar, Ser dinar borrowed from Ar

dini : religious [din] Per dini, Tat dini, Tur dini borrowed from Ar

diqqa : refinement; attention, care [daqqa] Hin diqqat, Per deggat, Taj diqqat, Tur dikkat borrowed from Ar

dir‘ : breastplate [Sem d-r-‘] Per der‘ borrowed from Ar

dirasa : a study [darasa] Per derasat borrowed from Ar

disambr : December [from Fre decembre]

diwan : collection of verses; register; councillor [from Per diwan] Ful diwanu, Hin divan, Per diwan, Swa diwani borrowed from Ar

diwan : sofa [diwan] Alb divan, Aze divan, Gre ntibani, Taj divan, Tat divan, Tur divan borrowed from Ar

du‘a : a call; prayer [da‘a] Ful doa, Hau addua, Hin dua, Ind doa, Per do‘a, Swa dua, Tur dua, Uzb duo borrowed from Ar

dubb : bear [Sem d-b, Mal debb, Akk dabu, Heb dov, JNA dibba, Amh debb, Tig debb, Ebl dabbu] Per dobb, Swa dubu borrowed from Ar

dubr : the back; anus [dabara] Ful duburu, Hau dubura, Ind dubur, jubur, Per dobor borrowed from Ar

duchan : smoke; tobacco [dachina] Hun dohany, Per dochan borrowed from Ar

duchn : millet [?]

duchul : entry [dachala] Per dochul borrowed from Ar

dud : worm [?] Per dud, Swa dudu borrowed from Ar

duhn : oil [dahana] Per dohn borrowed from Ar

dujja : darkness [daja] Per doja borrowed from Ar

dukkan : shop [dakka] Alb dyqan, Aze dükan, Bul djukjan, Ful dukkani, Hin dukan, Ind dukan, Kyr dükön, Per dokkan, Swa duka, Ser ducan, Taj dukon, Tur dükkan, Uzb dökon borrowed from Ar

dulab : wheel [from a Middle Per *dol-ab (water bucket)] Alb dollap, Gre ntoulapa, Per dulab, Rom dulap, Tur dolap borrowed from Ar

dulb : platane [?]

dulfin : dolphin [from Gre delphis] Hin dulfin, Per dalfin borrowed from Ar

duman : rudder [from Ita timone] Alb timon, Gre timoni, Tur dümen borrowed from Ar

dumia : statue [Sem d-m-y, Akk damtu (form), Heb demut (model), Syr dma (resemble)]

dumluj : bracelet [Sem d-m-l-g]

duna : without [?] Swa duni borrowed from Ar

dunia : world [Mal dinja, JNA dunye] Ful duniya, Hau duniya, Hin duniya, Ind dunya, Kyr düinö, Per donya, Swa dunia, Tat dönya, Tur dünya, Uzb dunyo borrowed from Ar

dunum : an area measure [from Tur dönüm]

durbin : binoculars, telescope [from Per dar-bin (far-sight)] Alb dylbi, Kyr dürvü, Ser durbin, Swa darubini, Tur dürbün, Uzb durbin borrowed from Ar

durr : pearl [Sem d-w-r, Ara dwr] Hin dur, Ind dur, Per dorr borrowed from Ar

durraj : hazel grouse [?] Per dorraj borrowed from Ar

durraq : peach [?]

duwali : international [daula]

duwama : whirlpool [Sem d-w-m]

duwar : circulation; dizziness [dara]

DH

dha : this [Sem dh, EgAr da, Mal dan, Heb ze, Syr da,Uga d, dh, Phoen z]

dha‘a : spread, broadcast [?]

dhaba : melt [Sem dh-w-b, Syr dab, Ara dwb (flow), Hrs dheyob]

dhabahha : slaughter [Sem dh-b-hh, Mal debah (sacrifice), Akk zibu (food offering), Heb zavach (sacrifice), Syr debach (slaughter), JNA madhbahh (altar), Tig zbhh (slaughter), Uga mdbhh, Phoen zbhh (sacrifice)]

dhabba : protect [Sem d-b-b, Heb davav, Ara dbb (lawsuit)]

dhabba : drive away [dabba]

dhabdhaba : swing [Sem dh-b-dh-b]

dhabhh : slaughtering [dhabahha] Hin zabah, Per dhabhh borrowed from Ar

dhabihha : sacrifice [dhabahha] Swa dhabihu borrowed from Ar

dhachara : store [Sem dh-ch-r]

dhachira : reserves [dhachara] Per dhachire borrowed from Ar

dhada : drive away [Sem dh-w-d, Syr dad (disturb)]

dhahab : gold [dhahaba] Per dhahab, Swa dhahabu borrowed from Ar

dhahab : going [dhahaba] Per dhahab, dhaheb borrowed from Ar

dhahaba : gild [Sem dh-h-b, EgAr dahab (gold), Heb zahav, Syr dahaba, JNA dehwa]

dhahaba : go forth [?]

dhahala : forget [Sem dh-h-l]

dhahil : forgetful, careless [dhahala] Hin zahil, Per dhahel borrowed from Ar

dhahila : stupefy [Sem dh-h-l, Syr dahel]

dhahin : intelligent [dhihn] Hin zahin, Per dhahin borrowed from Ar

dhail : back or bottom part [OS cil (tail), Soq ttal (sheep's tail)] Hin zail, Per dheyl borrowed from Ar

dhaiqa : good taste [dhaqa] Hin zayka, Per dhaeqe borrowed from Ar

dhaka : that [dha + ka]

dhaka : intelligence [dhakia] Aze zeka, Per dhaka, Tur zeka borrowed from Ar

dhakar : male [Sem dh-k-r, Akk zikaru, Heb zakhar, Syr dekra, Uga dkr] Ful jakari, Hau azzakari, Per dhakar borrowed from Ar

dhakara : remember [Sem dh-k-r, Akk zakaru (speak), Heb zakhar, Syr dekar, JNA tkhr, Amh tezkar (commemoration), Phoen zkr]

dhaki : intelligent [dhakia] Per dhaki borrowed from Ar

dhakia : be intelligent [?]

dhakir : remembering; pious [dhakara] Hin zakir, Per dhaker borrowed from Ar

dhakira : memory [dhakara] Per dhakere borrowed from Ar

dhakkara : remind [dhakara]

dhalala : baseness [dhalla] Hin zalalat, Per dhellat borrowed from Ar

dhalika : that [dha + ka]

dhalil : low, base [dhalla] Hin zalil, Per dhalil, Tur zelil borrowed from Ar

dhalla : be low; humiliated [Sem dh-l-l, Heb zol (cheap), Syr zaleyl (licentious), JNA dalila (poor), Uga dl (small), Phoen dl (poor)] Swa dhili borrowed from Ar

dhamma : reproach [Syr damem (observe)]

dhanab : tail [Sem dh-n-b, Mal denb, Akk zibbatu, Heb zanav, Syr domba, Hrs dheneb, Soq dinab, Tig zeneb, Uga dhnb, Ebl dhenabu]

dhanb : sin [Syr danab (wretched)] Ful junuba, Hau zunubi, Per dhanb, Swa dhambi borrowed from Ar

dhaqa : taste good [Sem dh-w-q, Heb duq (look), Syr adeq]

dhaqan : beard [Sem dh-q-n, Akk ziqnu, Heb zaqan, JNA diqna, Uga dqn, Phoen zqn, Ebl dhaqanu]

dhara : scatter, winnow [Sem dh-r-y, Akk zaru, Uga dhry]

dhara‘a : measure [?]

dharaqa : drop shit [zaraqa]

dhari‘a : means [dhara‘a] Hin zariya, Per dhari‘e borrowed from Ar

dharib : sharp [Sem dh-r-b]

dharra : scatter [dhara]

dharra : a grain; an atom, a molecule [dharra] Hin zarra, Per dharre, Tur zerre, Uzb zarra, Tur zerre borrowed from Ar

dhat : nature; essence [dha] Ful jati, Hin zat, Per dhat, Tur zat borrowed from Ar

dhauq : taste, flavor; feel [dhaqa] Aze zövq, Hin zauk, Per dhouq, Tur zevk borrowed from Ar

dhib : wolf [Sem dh-b, Akk zibu (jackal), Heb zeev, Syr daba, JNA dewa, Amh jeb (hyena), Tig zebi]

dhihn : intelligence, mind; memory [dzanna] Aze zehn, Hin zehn, Per dhehn, Tat zihen, Tur zihin borrowed from Ar

dhikr : mention [dhakara] Hin zikr, Per dhekr, Tur zikir borrowed from Ar

dhikra : memory [dhakara]

dhilla : baseness; suffer humiliation [dhalla] Hin zillat, Per zellat borrowed from Ar

dhimma : responsibility [dhamma] Hin zimma, Per dhemme borrowed from Ar

dhira‘ : arm [Sem dh-r-‘, LiAr dra‘, Mal driegh, Heb zero‘a, Syr dera‘a, JNA dra’a, Hrs dhera, Tig mezret, Uga dhr‘]

dhu : the one of [Sem dh]

dhubab : flies [Sem dh-b-b, LiAr dubbane, Mal dubbiena, Akk zubbu, Heb zevuv, Syr dababa, JNA didwa, Hrs dhebbet, Amh zemb, Ebl zababu]

dhura : millet [dharra]

dhurria : offspring [dharra] Tur zürriyet borrowed from Ar

dhurwa : summit [?] Aze zirve, Per dhorwe, Tur zirve borrowed from Ar

DZ

dza’ana : depart [Sem dz-’-n, Akk ssenu (carry, load), Heb tta’an, Syr tt’en, JNA tt’n, Amh ttshana]

dzabi : gazelle [Sem dz-b-y, Akk ssabitu, Heb tzevi, Syr ttabya, Sab ssby (antelopes), Uga dzby (gazelle), Ebl dzabaytu]

dzafira : be successful [?]

dzafr : victory [dzafira] Aze zefer, Per dzafar, Tur zafer, Uzb zafar borrowed from Ar

dzahara : be clear, bright; appear [zahara]

dzahir : clear, obvious; external [dzahara] Aze zahir, Hau zahiri, Per dzaher, Swa dhahiri, Tur zahir borrowed from Ar

dzahira : appearance [dzahara]

dzahr : back [Sem dz-h-r, Akk sseru, Uga dzr]

dzalam : darkness [dzalima]

dzalama : oppress [Sem dz-l-m, Syr ttlam] Swa dhulumu borrowed from Ar

dzalil : shady [dzalla]

dzalim : wicked; tyrant, oppressor [dzalama] Hin zalim, Kyr zulum, Per dzalem, Swa dhalimu, Tur zalim, Uzb zolim borrowed from Ar

dzalima : be dark [Sem dz-l-m, Mal dlam (darkness), Akk ssalamu (be dark), Heb tzelem (image), Syr tzalma, JNA zulmat (darkness), Soq tlm, Amh tshelleme (be dark), Tig selma (dark), Uga dzlmt (darkness)]

dzalla : make shady [Sem dz-l-l, Mal dell (shade), EgAr dill, Akk ssillu, Heb tzel, Syr ttelala, JNA ttilla, Amh ttela, Uga dzl]

dzalla : stay [?]

dzama : be thirsty [Sem dz-m-y, Akk ssamu, Heb tzama, Hrs dzema, Amh ttema, Tig ssema, Uga dzm’]

dzann : opinion [dzanna] Aze zenn, Per dzann, Tur zan borrowed from Ar

dzanna : mean, think, assume, consider [Hrs dzen, Gur atyanne]

dzarafa : elegance, wit [dzarufa] Hin zarafat, Per dzarafat borrowed from Ar

dzarf : envelope [dzarrafa] Alb zarf, Aze zerf, Per dzarf, Tur zarf borrowed from Ar

dzarf : situation [dzarufa]

dzarif : elegant [dzarufa] Aze zerif, Per dzarif, Tur zarif borrowed from Ar

dzarrafa : wrap, put in a wrap [?]

dzarufa : be elegant [?]

dzat : being; object, thing [dzu] Kyr zat, Tur zat borrowed from Ar

dzill : shade [dzalla]

dzirr : flintstone [Akk ssurru, Heb ssor, Syr ttur, OSAr dzwr, Uga dzr]

dzu : belonging to [?]

dzufr : fingernail [Sem dz-p-r, EgAr dufr, Mal difer, Akk ssupru, Heb tzipporen, Syr ttefra, JNA ttupra, Hrs dzefir, Amh ttefer, Tig ssefer]

dzuhr : noon [dzahara] Hau azahar, Ind lohor, Per dzohr, Swa adhuhuri borrowed from Ar

dzuhur : appearance [dzahara] Per dzohor, Tur zuhur borrowed from Ar

dzulm : oppression; wrong, inequity [dzalama] Aze zülm, Hin dzulm, Per dzolm, Tur zulüm borrowed from Ar

dzulma : darkness [dzalima] Aze zülmet, Hin dzulma, Ind zulmat, Per dzolmat, Tur zulmet borrowed from Ar


F Edit

fa : the letter f [Sem p-y, Heb pe (mouth)] Per fe borrowed from Ar

fa : then [Sem p-y, Heb af (altough, even), Uga p (and then), Phoen ’p]

fa‘al : active [fa‘ala] Aze feal, Per fa‘al, Tur faal borrowed from Ar

fa‘ala : do [Sem p-‘-l, Heb pa‘l, Syr pa‘la (worker), JNA pa’la, Uga b‘l (act), Phoen p‘l]

fa‘ala : workers, laborers [fa‘ala] Aze fehle, Per fa‘le borrowed from Ar

fa‘alia : activity [fa‘ala] Per fa‘aliyat, Tur faaliyet, Uzb faoliyat borrowed from Ar

facchar : pottery [from Sum bahar] Per facchar borrowed from Ar

fach : sling [Syr pacha]

fachara : boast [Sem p-ch-r, Mal fahhar (praise), Heb tiferet (splendor)]

fachdh : thigh [Sem p-ch-d, Heb pachad, Syr puchda, Hrs efhad] Per fachdh borrowed from Ar

fachir : splendid [fachara] Per facher borrowed from Ar

fachr : fame, pride, glory [fachara] Aze fexr, Hin fakhr, Per fachr borrowed from Ar

fada : redeem [Sem p-d-y, Mal feda, Heb pada, Ara pdy, Amh fayda (value), Uga pdy]

fadan : redemption [fada]

faddan : an area [Sem p-d-n, Akk padanu (path), Syr padana (plough, yoke, field)]

fadza‘a : disgust; dismay [fadzu‘a] Per fadza‘at, Swa fadhaa borrowed from Ar

fadzu‘a : be disgusting [?]

faghara : gape [Syr pe‘ar]

fahama : understand [Mal fehem, maybe from a common Sem root p-h (see), cp. Uga phw, phy (see)] Ful fama, Ind faham, Swa fahamu borrowed from Ar

fahd : panther; cheetah [Syr pahda] Per fahd borrowed from Ar

fahha : hiss [Sem p-hh, Heb puch (wheeze), Tig fehhot (smell)]

fahhassa : break up (soil); investigate [?]

fahhish : adulterous [fahhusha] Hin fahish, Per fahhesh borrowed from Ar

fahhl : male, stallion [Sem p-hh-l, Mal fahal, Akk puchalu, Uga phhl] Per fahhl borrowed from Ar

fahhm : coal [Sem p-hh-m, Akk pemtu, Mal faham, Heb pecham, Uga phhm] Per fahhm borrowed from Ar

fahhss : investigation [fahhassa] Per fahhss borrowed from Ar

fahhusha : be filthy, adulterous [Mal fahxi (obscene)]

fahima : understand [fahama]

fahm : understanding [fahama] Ful fahmu, Hin fahm, Ind faham, Per fahm borrowed from Ar

faida : use; benefit, profit [afada] Aze fayda, Hau faida, Hin fayda, Kyr payda, Per faede, Swa faida, Tat faida, Tur fayda, Uzb foyda borrowed from Ar

fa‘il : perpetrator [fa‘ala] Per fa‘el, Tur fail borrowed from Ar

failasuf : philosopher [from Gre philosophos] Hin failasuf, Ind failasuf, Per feylasuf borrowed from Ar

faiq : superior, excellent [faqa] Per faeq borrowed from Ar

fairuz : turquoise [from Per piruz] Hin firoza, Ind pirus, Per firuz borrowed from Ar

faissal : adjudication, decision [fassala] Hin faisla, Per feyssal borrowed from Ar

faisz : abundantly; interest, percentage [fasza] Aze faiz, Hin faiz, Per feysz borrowed from Ar

faja : come unexpectedly [?]

faja‘a : suffer disaster [Heb paga‘ (injure)]

faji‘ : disastrous [faja‘a] Per faji‘, Tur feci borrowed from Ar

faji‘a : catastrophe, disaster [faja‘a] Aze facie, Per faji‘e, Tat fadzhiga, Tur facia borrowed from Ar

fajj : passage (between two hills) [Syr paga (crossroads)] Per fajj borrowed from Ar

fajja‘a : torment [faja‘a]

fajjara : split, burst [Sem p-g-r, Mal fagra (bleeding)]

fajr : daybreak [fajjara] Ful fajiri, Hin fajr, Ind fajar, Per fajr, Swa alfajiri borrowed from Ar

fakaha : merryment [fakiha] Per fakahat borrowed from Ar

fakiha : be merry [Sem p-k-h]

fakiha : fruit [maybe from a common Sem root p-k (break away)] Per fakehe borrowed from Ar

fakk : jaw [Sem p-k-k, Syr paka (cheek)] Per fakk borrowed from Ar

fakk : loosening, separaration [fakka] Per fakk borrowed from Ar

fakka : loosen, redeem [Syr pekak (break), Gur feka (escape), Tig fekk (limb, joint)]

fakkara : think over [Sem p-k-r, Mal fakkar (remind)] Swa fikiri borrowed from Ar

fal : good omen [tafauwala] Per fal, Swa fali, Tur fal borrowed from Ar

fa‘l : act [fa‘ala] Hin fal, Ind faal, feel, Per fe‘l borrowed from Ar

fala : delouse [Sem p-l-y, Akk uplu (head louse), Syr palya (a locust)]

fala‘a : split, divide [Sem p-l-’, JNA pl’]

falafil : a dish

falahha : split, plough [Sem p-l-hh, Heb pallach (ploughsman), Syr palacha]

falaj : palsy [falaja] Per falaj borrowed from Ar

falaja : split, divide [Sem p-l-g, Akk palgu (canal), Heb pilleg (split), Syr pelag, JNA palga (half), BAram plg, Uga plg, Phoen plg (district)]

falak : heaven; orbit [Sem p-l-k, Akk pilakku (spindle), Heb pelekh, Uga plk] Aze felek, Ful falaku, Hin falak, Ind falak, Per falak, Tur felek, Uzb falak borrowed from Ar

falaka : disaster [falak] Aze felaket, Per falakat, Tur felaket, Uzb falokat borrowed from Ar

falamanki : Dutch [from Dutch vleming]

falanka : railway sleeper [from Gre phalanx]

falaqa : split, divide [Akk palaku (separate), palaqu (slay)]

falasa : ruin, make bankrupt [Sem p-l-s, Amh fellese (get uprooted, emigrate)] Swa filisi borrowed from Ar

falata : escape [Sem p-l-t, Akk balattu (live), Heb niflatt, Syr pelatt, Uga pltt]

falia : a scarab [fala]

falij : palsy [Mal filga] Hin falij, Per falej, Tur felc borrowed from Ar

falla : break, split [Sem p-l-y, Tig fela]

fallahh : peasant [falahha] Ind fellah, Per fallahh borrowed from Ar

fallasa : declare bankrupt [?]

fals : a coin [fils] Per fals borrowed from Ar

falsafa : philosophy [from Gre philosophia] Aze felsefe, Hin falsafa, Ind falsafat, filsafat, Per falsafe, Tur felsefe, Uzb falsafa borrowed from Ar

faluka : felucca [fulk]

fam : mouth [Sem p-m, Mal fomm, Syr puma, JNA pimma] Per fam borrowed from Ar

fana : going down, perishing [fania] Hin fana, Per fana borrowed from Ar

fanar : lighthouse; lantern, lamp [from Gre phanarion] Aze fener, Per fanar, Rus fonar, Tat fonar, Tur fener borrowed from Ar

fani : perishing, transitory [fania] Hin fani, Per fani borrowed from Ar

fania : consume; go down, perish [Sem p-n-y, Mal fena, Heb pana (turn), Syr pena, Amh fina (direction), Tig fena (depart), Uga pny (turn)]

fann : sort; art; technique [fanna] Ful fannu, Hau fanni, Hin fan, Per fann, Tur fen, Uzb fan borrowed from Ar

fanna : vary [Heb ofen (manner)]

fannan : artist; technical [fanna] Per fannan borrowed from Ar

fanni : technical, scientific [fanna] Per fanni, Tat fenni, Tur fenni borrowed from Ar

fanus : lantern, lamp, torch; headlight [from Gre phanos] Hin fanus, Per fanus, Swa fanusi borrowed from Ar

faq : cleft [faqa] Per faq borrowed from Ar

faqa : split, burst [Sem p-q-y] Swa foka borrowed from Ar

faqa : surpass [Sem p-w-q]

faqa : need, starvation [?] Hin faka, Per faqe borrowed from Ar

faqa‘a : burst [Sem p-q-‘, Mal faqa‘, JNA pq’]

faqada : lose [?]

faqar : spinal column [?] Ind fakar, Per faqar borrowed from Ar

faqara : pierce [Sem p-q-r]

faqatt : only [?] Hin fakat, Per faqatt borrowed from Ar

faqhha : anus [Ara pqch (open the eyes)]

faqid : needy; unconscious [faqada] Per faqed borrowed from Ar

faqih : legal expert [faqiha] Per faqih borrowed from Ar

faqiha : understand [?]

faqir : poor [faqura] Aze faqir, Ful fakiri, Hin faqir, Ind fakir, Per faqir, Swa fukara, Tat fekir, Tur fakir borrowed from Ar

faqr : poverty [faqura] Per faqr borrowed from Ar

faqura : make poor [?]

far : lamb [Sem p-r, Mal fart (young bull), Akk parru (lamb), Heb para (cow), Uga pr (young bull)]

far‘ : branch [Mal fergha, Heb peri (fruit), Syr pera, Amh fere, Uga pr, Phoen pr]

fara : split [Sem p-r-y]

fara : mouse [Sem p-r-r, Mal far, Akk perurutu, Hrr fur, Gur fur, Ebl paratu] Per fare, Tur fare borrowed from Ar

fara : wild ass [Akk paru (mule), Heb pere]

fara : boil [Ara pwr (be angry)]

farada : be alone [Sem p-r-d, Mal fired, Heb hifrid (separate)]

faragha : be empty [Mal fieragh]

faragh : emptiness; leisure [faragha] Per faragh borrowed from Ar

faragha : leisure [faragha] Aze faraqat, Hau faraga, Hin faraghat, Per faraghat borrowed from Ar

farahh : joy [farihha] Aze fereh, Per farahh, Swa furaha borrowed from Ar

faraj : relaxation [faraja]

faraja : split; scatter [Mal farrag (comfort), EgAr farag (release)]

faraka : rub [Mal farrak (grind), Syr perak (rub)]

faraqa : split, separate [Sem p-r-q, Mal ferraq, Heb pereq (chapter), Syr peraq (remove), purqana (salvation), JNA prk (break off), Uga prq (separate)]

faras : horse [Sem p-r-s, Heb parash, Syr parasha (knight), JNA parasha, Hrs ferhin (horse), Amh feres, Tig feres, Uga prs (cart)] Per faras, Swa farasi borrowed from Ar

farasa : tear apart [Sem p-r-s, Akk parasu (cut off, decide), Heb perush (meaning), Syr perash (distinguish), JNA prsh (split), Amh ferrese (fall apart)]

farasha : spread [Mal firex, Akk parasu, Heb paras, Syr perass, JNA prs, Uga prsh]

farasha : moth, butterfly [?]

farasza : prescribe [?]

farata : pick [Sem p-r-t, Heb parat (cut, divide)]

faraza : separate [Meh feroz]

farch : offspring, shoot, sprout [farracha]

farcha : young bird [farracha]

fard : individual; single [farada] Aze ferd, Hin fard, Per fard, Tur fert borrowed from Ar

farigh : empty, hollow; free [faragha] Hin farig, Per faregh borrowed from Ar

farihha : rejoice [Mal ferah]

fariq : difference; group [faraqa] Hin farik, Per fariq borrowed from Ar

farir : lamb [far]

faris : horseman [faras]

farisza : commandment, obligation [farasza] Ful farilla, Per farisze, Swa faradhi borrowed from Ar

farj : ravine; vagina [faraja] Ful farji, Hau farji, Per farj borrowed from Ar

farmala : brake [from Fre frein a main]

farq : difference [faraqa] Aze ferq, Hin fark, Ind farak, Per farq, Tur fark borrowed from Ar

farra : flee [Sem p-r-r, Akk pararu (be broken up), Heb porer (crumble), Syr perar (flee), Hrs fer (fly), Uga prr (break)]

farracha : have chicks [Sem p-r-ch, Akk per‘u (sprout), Mal ferch (cub), Heb efroach (chick), perach (blossom), Syr parocha (chick), JNA farkha]

farran : baker [furn]

farraqa : separate [faraqa]

farrassa : have leisure [?]

farrasza : cut in [Sem p-r-sz, Heb paratz (break), mifratz (gulf, bay)]

farratta : exceed [?]

farruj : chicken [Heb pargit, Syr paruga (kid), JNA farrujka (chick)] Swa faranga borrowed from Ar

farsh : spread; furniture, carpet [farasha] Aze fers, Hin farsh, Per farsh borrowed from Ar

farshahha : squat [Akk napalsuchu, Uga prshh]

farsi : Persian [Furs] Per farsi, Taj forsi, Tur farsi borrowed from Ar

farsz : groove [farrasza]

farsz : presumption; duty, obligation [farasza] Aze ferz, Hin farz, Ind fardu, Per farsz, Tat faraz, Tur farz borrowed from Ar

farw : fur [from Sum bar (skin)]

fas : pickax, axe [Sem p-s, Mal fies, Akk pashu, Meh fos, Soq fos, Amh fas, Tig fas] Per fas borrowed from Ar

fasa : fart [Sem p-sh-y, Akk pashu, JNA pshy, Amh fesa, Tig fesha]

fasacha : dislocate (a limb) [Sem p-s-ch, Akk pesu (lame), Heb pisseach (limping)]

fasad : corruption, malice [fasada] Aze fesad, Hin fasad, Per fasad borrowed from Ar

fasada : be bad [?]

fasaqa : deviate, err [Sem p-s-q, Heb pasaq (part), Ara pesaq]

fasara : explain [Sem p-sh-r, Mal fisser, Akk pasharu (solve; interpret a dream), Heb pashar, Syr peshar] Swa fasiri borrowed from Ar

fasha : extend [Sem p-sh-sh, Akk pashashu (smear), Heb pasa (spread), Tig fss]

fashacha : straddle [Sem p-s-ch]

fashila : be thwarted [?]

fasid : corrupt, bad, malicious [fasada] Hin fasid, Per fased, Swa fisadi borrowed from Ar

fasihh : spacious [fasuhha]

fasiq : bad, immoral, profligate person [fasaqa] Ful fasiki, Hau fasiki, Per faseq, Swa fasiki borrowed from Ar

fasr : explanation [fasara] Ful fassaru, Per fasr borrowed from Ar

fass : stone, gem [Ara ps] Per fass borrowed from Ar

fassad : surgeon [fassada] Hin fassad, Per fassad borrowed from Ar

fassada : bleed [Mal fasad]

fassahha : eloquence [fassuhha] Ful fasaha, Hau fasaha, Hin fasahat, Per fassahhat, Swa fasaha borrowed from Ar

fassala : separate [Sem p-ss-l, Heb pissel (carve out), Ara pessal (cleave), Uga psl (stonecutter), Phoen pslt (statue)]

fassama : sever [Sem p-ss-m]

fassd : bleeding [fassada] Hin fasd, Per fassd borrowed from Ar

fassihh : clear (of speech) [fassuhha] Ind fasih, Per fassihh, Swa fasihi borrowed from Ar

fassil : separating; separating fence, wall [fassala] Hin fasil, Per fassil borrowed from Ar

fassila : interval [fassala] Aze fasile, Hin fasla, Per fassele, Tur fasila borrowed from Ar

fassl : chapter, section; season, harvest [fassala] Ful faslu, Hau fasali, Hin fasl, Ind fasal, Per fassl, Taj fasl, Tur fasil borrowed from Ar

fassuhha : be clear (of speech) [?]

fasuhha : be wide [Sem p-s-hh]

fasza : break open; be spacious [Heb petza‘ (wound)]

fasza : overflow, flood [?]

fasza : space [fasza] Per fasza borrowed from Ar

faszahha : put to shame [?]

faszala : be superfluous [?]

faszala : be better [?]

faszihha : shame [faszahha] Hin fazihat, Ind fadihat, Per faszihhat borrowed from Ar

faszil : worthy, excellent [faszala] Hin fazil, Ind fadil, Per faszel borrowed from Ar

faszila : excellence [faszala] Hin fazilat, Per faszilat, Tur fazilet, Uzb fazilat borrowed from Ar

faszl : mercy, goodness [faszala] Hin fazl, Per faszl, Swa fadhili borrowed from Ar

fata : pass, elapse; disappear, be over [Sem f-w-t, Gez fwt (err, stray)]

fatahha : open; conquer [Sem p-t-hh, Mal fetah, Akk petu, pata‘u, Heb patach, Syr pethach, JNA pthkh, Hrs fetoh, Uga pthh, Phoen pthh]

fatala : twist, twine [Sem p-t-l, Mal fitla (wick), Akk patalu (twist), Heb patal, JNA ptl, Amh fetele]

fatan : young man [fatia] Per fata borrowed from Ar

fatana : test, tempt [Sem p-t-n, Amh fetene]

fataqa : rip [Mal fetaq, Heb peteq (a note)]

fatara : loosen, be slack [Sem p-t-r, Mt fietel (tepid), Akk pattaru (let loose), Heb pitter, Syr pettar (separate), Uga pttr (let loose)]

fatasha : search, inspect [Mal fittex, Amh feteshe]

fatfuta : crumb [Sem p-t-p-t]

fathh : conquest, victory [fatahha] Aze feth, Hin fatah, Per fathh, Tur fetih borrowed from Ar

fatia : be young [Sem p-t-y]

fatihh : conqueror [fatahha] Aze fateh, Per fatehh, Tur fatih borrowed from Ar

fatihha : opening; opening prayer, blessing [fatahha] Ful fatiha, Hau fatiha, Hin fatiha, Per fatehhe, Swa fatiha, Tat fatikha borrowed from Ar

fatir : tepid, flaccid [fatara] Per fater borrowed from Ar

fatta : crumble [Sem p-t-t, Mal fetta (a slice)]

fattana : be clever [Sem p-t-n, Amh fettene (be quick)]

fattara : break, split [Sem p-tt-r, Heb hifttir (conclude)]

fattara : create [Sem p-tt-r, Amh fettere]

fattasa : flatten; flay [Sem p-tt-sh, Heb pattish (hammer), Ara pattisha]

fattin : clever [fattana] Per fatten borrowed from Ar

fattir : creator [fattana] Per fatter borrowed from Ar

fattir : unleavened bread [fattara]

fatura : invoice [from Ita fattura]

fatwa : authorization [afta] Hin fatva, Per fatwa borrowed from Ar

faud : temple (of the head) [Sem p-w-d, Uga pd (lock, curl)]

fauj : regiment, army [?] Hin fauj, Per fouj borrowed from Ar

fauqa : above [faqa]

fauq al-‘ada : extraordinary, extreme [fauqa + ‘ada] Aze fövqelade, Per fouqol‘ade, Tur fevkalade, Uzb favqulodda borrowed from Ar

fauq al-qassira : ultrashort [fauqa + qassura]

faur : boiling; haste [fara]

fauran : hastily, immediately [fara] Hin fauran, Per fouran borrowed from Ar

fauri : hasty; instant [fara] Aze fövri, Per fouri borrowed from Ar

faut : passing; death [fata] Hin faut, Per fout borrowed from Ar

fauwasza : negotiate [?]

fayaszan : flood [fasza] Per fayaszan borrowed from Ar

fayyasz : abundant; generous [fasza] Hin faiyaz, Per faesz borrowed from Ar

faza : have success [?]

fazza : jump up [Sem p-z-z, Heb paziz (hasty)]

fi : in [Mal fi] Hin fi, Per fi borrowed from Ar

fibrayir : February [from Lat februarius]

fida : ransom; sacrifice [fada] Aze feda, Hin fida, Per feda borrowed from Ar

fidai : guerilla [fada]

fidan : redemption [fada]

fidya : ransom [fada] Per fediye, Swa fidia borrowed from Ar

fihris : index [from Per fehrest]

fijj : unripe fig [Sem p-g, Heb pag (early fig). Syr paga]

fikr : thought, idea, opinion [fakkara] Aze fikir, Hin fikr, Ind fikir, pikir, Kyr pikir, Per fekr, Swa fikara, Tat fiker, Tur fikir borrowed from Ar

fil : elephant [Akk piru, Heb pil, Syr pila, Phoen pl (ivory)] Aze fil, Kyr pil, Per fil, Taj fil, Tat fil, Tur fil, Uzb fil borrowed from Ar

fi‘l : action, deed, act; verb [fa‘ala] Aze fel, Ful fili, Ind faal, feel, fiil, Per fe‘l, Swa feli, Tur faal, fiil borrowed from Ar

fila : villa [from Lat villa]

filan : an individual [Sem p-l-n, Heb peloni, Syr plan] Tur filan borrowed from Ar

filfil : pepper [from Skt pippala] Per felfel borrowed from Ar

filizz : metal, brass [Heb peliz, Ara pliza] Per felezz borrowed from Ar

film : film [from Eng film]

fils : a coin [from Gre pholis]

filsafa : philosophy [falsafa] Ind filsafat borrowed from Ar

filw : foal [Mal felu, Tig felit (calf)]

fina : court [?]

findiq : hazelnut [from Gre pontikos] Aze findiq, Per fandoq, Tur findik borrowed from Ar

finjan : cup [from Per pangan] Alb filxhan, Aze fincan, Hun findzsa, Gre flitzani, Per fenjan, Rom filigean, Tur fincan borrowed from Ar

fiqh : right, law [faqiha] Ful fikhu, Hau fikhu, Ind fikh, Per feqh borrowed from Ar

fiqra : paragraph, sentence [faqar] Hin fikra, Per faqare borrowed from Ar

fir‘aun : Pharao [from OEg per-o] Per fer‘oun, Tur firavun borrowed from Ar

firaq : separation [faraqa] Hin firak, Per feraq borrowed from Ar

firar : flight, run [farra] Per ferar, Tur firar borrowed from Ar

firasa : skill, sagacity, intelligence [farasa] Aze feraset, Ind firasat, Per ferasat borrowed from Ar

firash : mattress, bed [farasha]

Firat : Euphrates [from Gre Euphrates] Tur Firat borrowed from Ar

firaula : strawberry [from Ita fragola]

firdaus : paradise [from Gre paradeisos] Ful firdausi, Hin firdaus, Ind firdaus, Per ferdous borrowed from Ar

firn : oven [furn] Tur firin borrowed from Ar

firqa : party, division [faraqa] Hin firka, Swa faraka, Per ferqe, Tur firka borrowed from Ar

firsha : brush [?] Tur firca borrowed from Ar

firzil : iron [Akk parzillu, Heb barzel, Syr parzila, JNA prizla, Phoen brzl, Uga brdhl, brshl]

fistiq : pistachio [from Middle Per pistag] Alb festek, Aze fistiq, Gre fistiki, Tur fistik borrowed from Ar

fisza : silver [Mal fidda] Per fesze, Swa fedha borrowed from Ar

fitil : wick [fatala] Alb fitil, Bul fitil, Gre fitili, Per fatile, Rom fitil, Rus fitil, Ser fitilj, Tur fitil borrowed from Ar

fitna : temptation; intrigue; discord, trouble, rebellion; misfortune, disaster [fatana] Aze fitne, Hau fitna, Hin fitna, Ful fitina, Ind fitnah, Per fetne, Swa fitina, Tat fetne, Tur fitne borrowed from Ar

fitra : time span [?] Per fetrat borrowed from Ar

fittr : breaking the fast [fattara] Per fettr borrowed from Ar

fittra : nature [fattara] Hin fitrat, Per fettrat, Tur fitrat borrowed from Ar

fuad : heart [Sem p-w-d, p-y-d, Uga pid] Ind fuad, Per foad borrowed from Ar

fuha : mouth [Sem p-w, p-y, Akk pu, Heb pe, JNA patha (face), Amh fit, Uga p (mouth), Phoen py]

fuja : unforeseen event [faja] Per foje borrowed from Ar

fujatan : suddenly [faja] Per fojatan borrowed from Ar

fujl : radish [Sem p-g-l, Mal figel, Akk puglu, JNA pe’la]

fukaha : humor [fakaha] Per fokahat borrowed from Ar

ful : bean [Sem p-w-l, Mal fula, Heb pol]

fuladh : steel [from Per pulad] Hin faulad, Per fulad borrowed from Ar

fulan : an individual [filan] Hin falan, Ind fulan, Per folan, Swa fulani, Tur filan borrowed from Ar

fulk : boat, felucca [from Gre epholkion]

funduq : hazelnut [findiq]

funduq : inn [from Gre pandokheion]

furatta : small change [farratta]

furfur : small bird [Gez ferfert (quail), Syr parpura (partridge), Amh ferfert]

furn : oven [from Ita forno]

furqan : salvation [faraqa] Ful furkanu, Ind furkan, Per forqan borrowed from Ar

Furs : Persia [from Per]

furssa : opportunity; leisure [farrassa] Aze fürset, Hin fursat, Per forssat, Tur firsat borrowed from Ar

fursza : harbor [farrasza] Swa forodha borrowed from Ar

fusaifisa : mosaic [from Gre psephos (pebble)]

fus’hha : free space [fasuhha]

fuss’hha : clearness (of speech), good Arabic [fassuhha]

fustan : dress [from a placename, cp. Ita fossata]

fustuq : pistachio [fistiq]

fuszul : useless; uselessness [faszala] Aze füzul, Hin fazul, fuzul, Ind fadul, Per foszul borrowed from Ar

futtr : mushroom [Heb pittriya]

futtur : breakfast [fattara]

futur : slackness; defect [fatara] Hin fatur, Per fotur borrowed from Ar

fuwaq : hiccup [Sem p-w-q]


GH Edit

ghaba : forest [Akk ababu]

ghaba : vanish [Mal gheb]

ghaban : stupidity [ghabia]

ghabana : deceive [?]

ghabash : twilight [Mal ghabex]

ghabatta : be glad [?]

ghabi : stupid [ghabia]

ghabia : be ignorant [Sem gh-b-y, Akk ebu (be thick), Heb ‘ave, Syr ‘aba, JNA ’by (swell), Tig ebi (big), Uga ghbn (thickness)]

ghabn : deceit [ghabana] Hin gabn, Per ghabn borrowed from Ar

ghad : next day [ghada]

ghada : go early [Mal ghada (tomorrow), ghodwa (morning)]

ghada : breakfast, lunch [ghada]

ghadan : tomorrow [ghada]

ghadara : leave, abandon [Heb ne‘edar (miss)]

ghaddar : treacherous; traitor [ghadara] Aze qeddar, Hin gaddar, Per ghaddar, Tur gaddar borrowed from Ar

ghaddha : feed [Uga ghdyn (provisioning), mghd (food)]

ghaddha : hurry [Uga ghdhdh]

ghadha : food [ghaddha] Aze qida, Hin giza, Per ghadha, Tur gida borrowed from Ar

ghadir : pond [Mal ghadira]

ghadwa : lunch [ghada]

ghadza : make angry [?]

ghafala : neglect [?]

ghafara : cover (the head); pardon [Sem gh-p-r, Mal hafer (forgive), Heb kipper (atone)]

ghafil : negligent [ghafala] Hin gafil, Per ghafel borrowed from Ar

ghafla : neglect [ghafala] Hin gaflat, Per ghaflat borrowed from Ar

ghafran : pardon, absolution [ghafara] Per ghofran, Swa ghofira borrowed from Ar

ghagha : tumult [Mal ghagha]

ghaib : absent; hidden, secret; out of sight, invisible, unseen [ghaba] Aze qeyb, Ful gaibu, Hau gaibi, Hin gaib, Ind ghaib, Per gheyb borrowed from Ar

ghaib : shame [Mal ghajb]

ghaidz : anger [ghadza] Per gheydz borrowed from Ar

ghaim : cloud [ghama]

ghair : other; strange [ghayyara] Hin gair, Per gheyr, Swa ghairi borrowed from Ar

ghaira : shame; jealousy; effort, energy, courage, might [ghara] Hin gairat, Ind gairah, Kyr kayrat, Per gheyrat, Tat gayret, Tur gayret, Uzb ghayrat borrowed from Ar

ghairi : other, different; not that [ghayyara] Aze qeyri, Per gheire, Tur gayri borrowed from Ar

ghaitt : field [?]

ghaitt : feces [?] Hau gayadi borrowed from Ar

ghala : destroy [Sem gh-w-l, Uga ‘wl (attack)]

ghala : boil [Mal ghalla]

ghala : exceed [?]

ghalaba : overwhelm, vanquish [Mal gheleb (win), Heb he‘eliv (insult), Syr ‘elab]

ghalaba : victory [ghalaba] Aze qelebe, Per ghalabe, Tur galebe, Uzb ghalaba borrowed from Ar

ghaladza : rudeness [ghaludza] Hin galazat, Per ghaladzat borrowed from Ar

ghalafa : wrap [?]

ghalaqa : close [?]

ghalatt : mistake; wrong [ghalitta] Hin galat, Per ghalatt borrowed from Ar

ghalib : dominating, victorious; chief, victor [ghalaba] Aze qalib, Hin galib, Ind ghalib, Per ghaleb, Tur galip, Uzb gholib borrowed from Ar

ghaliban : chiefly [ghalaba] Hin galiban, Per ghaleban borrowed from Ar

ghalidz : big, rude [ghaludza] Hin galiz, Per ghalidz borrowed from Ar

ghalin : too expensive; extreme [ghala] Swa ghali borrowed from Ar

ghalitta : err, make a mistake [Mal ghelt (a mistake)]

ghalla : collect (harvest) [?]

ghalla : insert [Heb ‘ol (yoke)]

ghaludza : be fat, big, rude [Sem gh-l-dz, Hrs ‘eledz]

ghalyun : pipe [ghala]

ghama : cover; get cloudy [Sem gh-m-m and gh-m-y and gh-y-m, Heb ‘amum (dim), Uga ‘mm (wrap, cover, dim)]

ghama : swoon [ghama]

ghamada : cover [Mal ghamed (blindfold)]

ghamam : clouds [ghama]

ghamasa : sink [Uga qmss]

ghamassa : despise [Sem gh-m-s, Syr thachmetztha (humiliation)]

ghamaza : wink [Mal ghamez]

ghamiq : dark [‘amuqa]

ghamm : grief, sorrow; concern, care [ghama] Aze qem, Hin gam, Kyr kam, Per ghamm, Swa ghamu, Tur gam, Uzb gham borrowed from Ar

ghamma : clouds [ghama]

ghamusza : wink [ghamaza]

ghana : riches [ghania]

ghanam : sheep [ghanima]

ghani : rich [ghania] Hin gani, Per ghani borrowed from Ar

ghania : be rich [Mal ghani (rich)]

ghanima : catch prey [?]

ghanima : booty [ghanima] Hau ganima, Hin ganimat, Per ghanimat, Tur ganimet, Uzb ghanimat borrowed from Ar

ghanna : sing [Sem gh-n-y, Mal ghanna, Uga ‘ny]

ghar : cave [ghara] Hin gar, Per ghar borrowed from Ar

ghara : be jealous [Sem gh-y-r, Mal ghajjur (jealous)]

ghara : sink [Sem gh-w-r, Mal ghar (cave), Heb me‘ara, Syr me‘artha, JNA mighara, Uga ghwr (sink)]

ghara : raid, invade [Sem gh-w-r, Amh werrere]

ghara : make stick(y) [?]

ghara : raid, plunder [ghara] Hin garat, Per gharat borrowed from Ar

gharafa : ladle, scoop [Sem gh-r-p]

gharama : fine; expense; division of assets [gharima] Per ghorama, Swa gharamu borrowed from Ar

gharara : sack [?] Per gharare borrowed from Ar

gharasa : plant [?]

gharasz : aim, objective; motive [?] Hin garz, Per gharasz borrowed from Ar

gharaza : prick, sting [?]

gharb : west [ghariba] Aze qerb, Per gharb, Tur garp, Uzb gharb borrowed from Ar

gharbal : sieve [kirbal] Per gharbal borrowed from Ar

gharbi : western [ghariba] Per gharbi, Tur garbi borrowed from Ar

gharghara : gargle [onomat.]

gharib : foreigner [Mal gharib] Aze qerib, Ind gharib, Per gharib, Tur garip borrowed from Ar

gharib : camel's back [Hrs ‘oreb]

ghariba : go down [Sem ‘-r-b, Akk erebu (enter), Heb ‘erev (evening), Syr ‘arab, JNA ma‘arav (west), Hrs ‘arb (west), Amh me‘erab, Uga ‘rb (enter), m‘rb (sunset)]

gharid : song-bird [gharida] Per ghared borrowed from Ar

gharida : sing (bird) [?]

gharima : pay a fine [?]

ghariqa : sink [Mal ghereq]

gharq : sinking; sunken [ghariqa] Hin gark, Per gharq borrowed from Ar

gharra : deceive [?]

ghars : planting [gharasa] Per ghars borrowed from Ar

ghasal : ablution [ghasala] Ind ghasal borrowed from Ar

ghasala : wash [Mal hasel]

ghash : swoon [gashia] Hin gash, Per ghash borrowed from Ar

ghashia : swoon [Mal ghaxwa]

ghashim : ignorant [taghashama]

ghassa : strangle [?]

ghassaba : snatch [?]

ghassha : deceive [?]

ghassib : usurper [ghassaba] Per ghasseb, Tur gaasip borrowed from Ar

ghaszab : anger [ghasziba] Aze qezeb, Hin gazab, Swa ghadabu, Per ghaszab, Tur gazap, Uzb ghazab borrowed from Ar

ghasziba : be angry [Mal ghadba (anger), Heb ‘atzuv (sad)]

ghaszir : fresh, green [chaszira]

ghath : thin [Heb ‘asheshet (caries)]

ghatta : cut [Mal ghatta]

ghatta : cover [?]

ghatta : dive, plunge [maybe from a common Sem root gh-tt (abyss), cp. Akk ettu (be dark)]

ghatta : snore [?]

ghattasa : go deep, dive [Sem gh-tt-s, Mal ghodos]

ghaur : depth; deep thought [ghara] Hin gaur, Per ghour borrowed from Ar

ghautt : deep well [ghatta]

ghawa : err [Sem gh-w-y, Uga ‘wy (bend, turn away)]

ghaya : limit, extreme situation; aim, purpose; idea, project [?] Hau gaya, Hin gayat, Per ghaye, Tur gaye, Uzb ghoya borrowed from Ar

ghayatan : extremely [ghaya]

ghayyara : change [?]

ghaz : gas [from Fre gaz]

ghaza : raid [Sem gh-z-w, Sab ghzw, Uga ghzw, ghzm (attackers)]

ghaza : holy war [ghaza] Ind ghaza borrowed from Ar

ghazal : gazelle [Akk chuzalu (young antelope)]

ghazal : lyrical poem [ghazala] Hin gazal, Per ghazal borrowed from Ar

ghazala : spin [Sem gh-z-l, Mal ghazel, JNA ’zl, Uga ghzl (spinner)]

ghazir : abundant [ghazura]

ghazura : be abundant [?]

ghazw : a raid, invasion [ghaza]

ghiba : slander [ighba] Per gheibat, Tur giybet, Uzb ghiybat borrowed from Ar

ghidha : food; lunch [ghaddha]

ghil : thicket [Uga ghl]

ghilaf : wrap, sheath [ghalafa] Hin gilaf, Ind ghelaf borrowed from Ar

ghina : riches [ghania] Ind ghina, Per ghana borrowed from Ar

ghina : song [ghanna]

ghiram : gram [from Fre gramme]

ghissh : deceit [ghassha]

ghitta : cover, veil [ghatta] Per ghetta borrowed from Ar

ghubar : dust [Sem gh-b-r, Mal ghabra, Hrs ‘ebar, Amh abwara] Hin gubar, Per ghobar borrowed from Ar

ghudwa : early morning [ghada]

ghufra : lid [ghafara]

ghul : desert demon [ghala]

ghulam : servant, boy [Syr ‘alama, Uga ghlm, Phoen ‘lmt (maid)] Hin gulam, Ind ghulam, Per gholam borrowed from Ar

ghull : handcuffs [ghalla]

ghumr : armful [Sem gh-m-r, Mal ghamra (sheaf), Heb ‘omer, Ara ‘mr]

ghurab : raven [Sem gh-r-b, Akk erebu, Heb ‘orev, Syr ‘urba, Hrs ye‘ereb, Ebl ‘aribu]

ghurba : exile [gharib] Hin gurbat, Per ghorbat borrowed from Ar

ghurfa : room [?]

ghurla : foreskin [Sem gh-r-l, Akk urullu, Heb ‘orla]

ghurnuq : crane [Sem gh-r-n-q, Akk urnigu]

ghurr : deceit [gharra] Per ghorr borrowed from Ar

ghurub : sunset [ghariba] Hin gurubm, Per ghorub borrowed from Ar

ghurur : self-illusion; pride [gharra] Aze qürur, Hin garur, Per ghorur, Tat gorur, Tur gurur, Uzb ghurur borrowed from Ar

ghusl : ablution [ghasala] Hin gusl, Per ghosl borrowed from Ar

ghussa : grief; anger [ghassa] Aze qüsse, Hin gussa, Per ghosse borrowed from Ar

ghutta : plunging [ghatta] Hin gota, Per ghutte borrowed from Ar


H Edit

ha : here! [Heb ha (the), JNA ha (behold!), Phoen h (the)]

ha : the letter h [Heb he] Per he borrowed from Ar

ha : be of good stature; be prepared [?]

habatta : go down, land [MoAr hbett (go)]

habba : blow (wind) [Sem h-b-b (move)]

hada : lead, guide; convert [Sem h-d-y, Syr hada] Swa hidi borrowed from Ar

hada : be Jewish [Mal lhudi (Jew), Heb Yehuda (a personal name), Amh yehudi (Jewish)]

hada : give presents [?]

hadaf : target [hadafa] Aze hedef, Per hadaf borrowed from Ar

hadafa : be near [?]

hadaja : totter [?]

hadana : be still [?]

hadda : calm down [?]

haddada : threaten [?]

haddama : destroy [Sem h-d-m, Ara hdm (dismember)]

haddhaba : educate [?]

hadha : this [ha + dha]

hadhaba : prune, cleanse [?]

hadhaka : that [ha + dha + ka]

hadhara : chat, babble [MoAr hdher (talk)]

hadi : quiet [hadda]

hadia : gift [hada] Aze hediyye, Ind hadiah, Per hadiyye, Swa hedaya borrowed from Ar

hadim : destroyer [haddama] Per hadem borrowed from Ar

hafa : deviate, fail [?]

hafwa : failure [hafa] Per hafwah borrowed from Ar

haij : excited [haja]

haikal : temple; statue [from Sum egal] Aze heykal, Ful haikali, Hau haikali, Per heikal, Swa hekalu, Tat kheikel, Tur heikel, Uzb khaykal borrowed from Ar

hail : scary [hala]

haisza : dysentery, cholera [?] Hin haiza, Per haysze borrowed from Ar

haja : be excited [?]

hajama : attack [Sem h-g-m, Ara hgm (destroy)]

hajara : depart; emigrate; separate oneself [Sem h-g-r, Ara hgr (convert to Islam)]

hajin : racing camel; mixed-blood [from Gre eugenes]

hajja : spell [Sem h-g-g, Heb haga, Uga hgw, hgy]

hajr : separation [hajara] Hin hijr, Per hajr borrowed from Ar

haka : there! [ha + ka]

hakadha : so [haka + dha]

hal : is it so? [ha]

hala : halo [from Gre halos] Hin hala, Per hale borrowed from Ar

hala : scare [?]

halak : destroyed; fall, ruin; death [halaka] Aze helak, Hin halak, Per halak, Tur helak borrowed from Ar

halaka : perish [Sem h-l-k, Akk alaku (go, walk), Heb halakh, Syr halek, BAram halakh, Uga hlk, Phoen hlk]

halaka : fall, ruin; death [halaka] Hin halakat, Per halakat, Tat helaket borrowed from Ar

halayun : asparagus [?]

halilaj : myrobalan [from Middle Per halilag]

halla : shout [Sem h-l-l, Heb hillel (praise), Syr halel]

halla : untie [Mal hall]

hallala : jubilate [halla]

hamasa : whisper [?]

hamhama : growl, make noise [Sem h-m-h-m, Heb hama]

hamm : anxiety, trouble, grief [hamma] Per hamm borrowed from Ar

hamm : important [hamma]

hamma : be anxious [Mal hemm (trouble)]

hamma : be important [?]

hana : be of small weight [?]

handama : symmetry [from Middle Per]

handasa : geometry [from Middle Per handazag] Per hendese, Tur hendese borrowed from Ar

hani : healthy, pleasant [hania] Per hani borrowed from Ar

hania : be glad [Mal henna (comfort), Heb hanaa (pleasure)]

hanna : congratulate [?]

hara : be destroyed [?]

haraba : flee [Mal harab]

harraba : smuggle [haraba]

haraja : be in commotion [Heb harag (destroy)]

haram : pyramid [?] Ful harami, Per haram borrowed from Ar

haram : senile [harima] Per haram borrowed from Ar

harasa : crush, grind [Sem h-r-s, Heb harass (destroy)]

harima : get senile [?]

harj : commotion [haraja] Hin harj, Per harj, Tur herc borrowed from Ar

harwala : hurry [?]

hashama : smash, destroy [?]

hashim : fragile; hay, oat [hashama]

haszama : digest [?]

haszba : hill [?]

haszm : digestion [haszama] Aze hezm, Hin hazm, Per haszm, Tur hazim borrowed from Ar

haszma : digestion [haszama] Hin hazma, Tur hezimet borrowed from Ar

hat : please bring! [?] Per hat borrowed from Ar

hatafa : buzz, ring [?]

hatif : inner voice; buzzer; telephone [hatafa] Per hatef borrowed from Ar

haul : horror [hala] Hin haul, Per houl borrowed from Ar

hauwa : ventilate [hawa]

hauwa : lover [hawa]

hauwaya : fan [hawa]

hawa : air, atmosphere [Sem h-w-y, Amh hewa] Aze hava, Hin hava, Ind hawa, Kyr awa, Per hawa, Swa hewa, Taj havo, Tat khava, Tur hava, Uzb khavo borrowed from Ar

hawa : fall into an abyss [Sem h-w-y, Hrs hewo]

hawa : desire [hawia] Per hawa, Swa hawa borrowed from Ar

hawan : love, desire [hawia]

hawas : stupidity; rage; desire, love [hawisa] Aze heves, Hin havas, Per hawas, Tat kheves, Tur heves borrowed from Ar

hawaya : hobby [hawia]

hawia : abyss [hawa] Ful hawiya, Per hawiye borrowed from Ar

hawia : love [?]

hawin : amateur [hawia]

hawisa : be in commotion [?]

hawun : mortar [from Per hawan]

haya : stature [ha]

hayajan : excitement [haja] Aze heyecan, Per hayajan, Tur heyecan borrowed from Ar

hayula : matter [from Gre hyle]

hayya : prepare [Mal hejja]

hayya : start!

hayyin : light (of weight) [hana]

haza : mock [?]

hazala : reduce [?]

hazala : joke [?]

hazama : defeat [?]

hazhaza : swing [hazza]

hazima : defeat [hazama] Per hazimat, Tur hezimet borrowed from Ar

hazl : joke [hazala]

hazza : swing [Mal hezzez (shake)]

hia : she [Sem h-y, Mal hi, Heb hi, Syr hi, JNA ahi, Uga hy, Phoen h’]

hiba : gift, present [wahaba] Hin hibba, Ind hebah, Per hebe borrowed from Ar

hidaya : guidance, instruction [hada] Hin hidayat, Ind hidayat, Per hedayat borrowed from Ar

hija : syllable; spelling [hajjaja] Aze heca, Hin hijje, Ind eja, Per heja, Tur hece borrowed from Ar

hijra : emigration [hajara] Ful hijra, Hau hijira, Hin hijrat, Ind hijrat, Per hejrat, Tur hijret borrowed from Ar

hijran : separation [hajara] Aze hicran, Per hejran borrowed from Ar

hilal : crescent [Heb helal (star), Gez helal (crescent)] Per helal, Tur hilal, Uzb khilol borrowed from Ar

himma : effort; resolve [hamma] Hin himmat, Per hemmat borrowed from Ar

Hind : India [from Skt Sindh] Per Hend, Tat Khind, Tur Hint, Uzb Khind borrowed from Ar

hindab : endive [Ara chdb] Per hendaba borrowed from Ar

hubutt : landing [habatta]

hud-hud : hopoe [onomat.] Hin hud-hud, Per hod-hod borrowed from Ar

hudna : ceasefire [hadana]

hudu : quiet, stillness [hadda]

hujum : attack; crowd [hajama] Aze hücum, Hin hujum, Per hojum, Tur hücum, Uzb khujum borrowed from Ar

hum : they [Sem h-w-m, Mal huma, Heb hem]

huna : here [Mal hawn, Heb hinne, Uga hn, hnn, Phoen hn]

hunaka : there [huna + ka]

hunna : they [Sem h-w-n, Heb hen, Syr henon]

hurub : flight [haraba]

huwa : he [Sem h-w, Mal hu, Heb hu, JNA ahu, Uga hw, Phoen h’]

huwa : abyss [hawa]

huwia : identity [huwa] Per howiyat, Tur hüviyet borrowed from Ar

HH

hhabaq : basil [Mal habaq]

hhabar : bruise [Akk ibaru (mark on skin), Heb chabbura (weld)]

hhabasa : restrain, arrest [Sem hh-b-s, Mal habs (jail), Heb chavash (bandage), Syr chebash (imprison)]

hhabashi : Ethiopian [Amh habesha] Ful habasi, Hau habasha, Hin hhabshi, Ind habsyi, Per hhabashi, Swa habeshi, Tur habesi borrowed from Ar

hhabatta : be lost [chabatta]

hhabb : grain; pill [Mal habb, Syr chaba] Alb hape, Bul hap, Gre hapi, Per hhabb, Tur hap borrowed from Ar

hhabba : love [Sem hh-b-b, Mal habb, Heb ahav, chiba, Syr acheb, chabiba (friendly), Uga ’b, ’hb]

hhabba : grain [hhabb] Per hhabbe, Tur habbe borrowed from Ar

hhabhhab : melon [Sem hh-b-hh-b]

hhabib : friend [hhabba] Ind habib, Per hhabib borrowed from Ar

hhabila : be pregnant [Syr chebal (give birth)]

hhabl : cable [Sem hh-b-l, Mal habel, Akk eblu, chabalu (tie, strap), Heb chevel (cable), Syr chabla, JNA khola, Hrs hhebelet (umbilical cord), Uga hhbl, chbl (rope)]

hhabr : bishop, rabbi [Syr chabara (conjurer, exorcist)]

hhabs : arrest; jail [hhabasa] Aze hebs, Ser haps, Per hhabs, Tur hapis borrowed from Ar

hhabtt : idle act [hhabatta] Per hhabtt borrowed from Ar

hhada : chase [Uga hhdw, hhdy]

hhadaba : hump [Mal hotba]

hhadaqa : enclose [maybe from a common Sem root hh-d (enclose)]

hhadaqa : glance [?]

hhadaqa : pupil of the eye [hhadaqa] Per hhadaqe borrowed from Ar

hhadara : let down [?]

hhadath : unexpected event [hhadutha] Hin hadas, Per hhadath borrowed from Ar

hhadatha : happen, occur [hhadutha]

hhadd : border, limit [hhadda] Aze hedd, Hin had, Ind had, Per hhadd, Tur had borrowed from Ar

hhadd : sharp; edge, blade [hhadda] Per hhadd borrowed from Ar

hhadda : limit, define [maybe from a common Sem root hh-d (enclose)]

hhadda : sharpen [Heb chad (sharp)]

hhadda : threaten [Mal hedded]

hhaddada : draw borders [hhadda]

hhaddatha : tell, communicate [hhadutha]

hhaddha : shoemaker [ihhtadhawa]

hhaddz : share, luck; joy [hhadza] Per hhaddz borrowed from Ar

hhadha : be opposite to [?]

hhadhafa : cut off [?]

hhadhar : caution [hhadhira] Per hhadhar, Swa hadhari borrowed from Ar

hhadhir : cautious [hhadhira]

hhadhira : guard [maybe from a common Sem root hh-dh (enclose)]

hhadid : iron [Sem hh-d-d, Mal hadid, Amh hadid (rail)]

hhadid : sharp [hhadda]

hhadiqa : park, garden [hhadaqa]

hhadith : new [hhadutha]

hhadith : news; story; account; tradition [hhadutha] Ful hadise, Per hhadith, Swa hadithi borrowed from Ar

hhaditha : event, incident [hhadutha] Aze hadise, Hin hadasa, Per hhadithe borrowed from Ar

hhadutha : be new [Sem hh-d-th, Akk edesshu (new), Heb chadash, Syr chadeth, JNA khatha, Amh addis, Tig hhaddis, Uga hhdth, Phoen chdsh]

hhadhwa : opposite to [hhadha]

hhadza : have luck [?]

hhadzara : enclose, forbid [Sem hh-dz-r (surround), Akk ederu (embrace), Heb eizor (zone), Syr chedar (go round)]

hhadzira : perimeter fence [hhadzara]

hhadzr : prohibition [hhadzara]

hhafa : shore [Heb chof]

hhafa : be unjust [?]

hhafala : collect, assemble [?]

hhafana : grasp [Sem hh-p-n, Mal hafna (many), Heb chofen (handful), Amh effeny, Tig hhefen]

hhafara : dig [Mal haffer, Akk cheperu, Heb chafar, Syr chefar, JNA khpr]

hhafawa : reception [hhafia]

hhafaza : drive [?]

hhaffa : rub [Sem hh-p-p, Akk chapapu, Heb chafaf (shampoo), JNA khyp]

hhafia : go barefoot [Sem hh-p-y, Mal hafi (barefoot), Heb yachef, JNA khipyaya]

hhafia : receive sy, welcome [?]

hhafid : grandchild [?]

hhafidz : protector; scholar [hhafidza] Hin hafiz, Ind hafal, Per hhafidz, Tur hafiz borrowed from Ar

hhafidza : preserve [Sem hh-p-dz (be mindful)] Swa hifadhi borrowed from Ar

hhafila : bus [hhafala]

hhafin : barefoot [hhafia]

hhafiz : drive, motive [hhafaza]

hhafl : assembly [hhafala]

hhafla : feast [hhafala]

hhafna : handful [hhafana]

hhafria : excavations [hhafara] Per hhafriyat, Tur hafriyat borrowed from Ar

hhai : alive [hhayya] Per hhayy, Swa hai borrowed from Ar

hhaidar : lion [?] Hin haidar, Per hheydar borrowed from Ar

hhaif : injustice [hhafa] Hin haif, Per hheyf borrowed from Ar

hhail : power, force [Sem hh-y-l, Akk illatu (group, army), Heb chail (force), Syr chayla, JNA khela, Sab chyl, Amh hayl, Uga hhl]

hhaira : amazement [hhara] Hin hairat, Per hheyrat borrowed from Ar

hhairan : amazed, astonished [hhara] Aze heyran, Hin hayran, Ind hairan, Per hheiran borrowed from Ar

hhaisz : menstruation [hhasza] Ful haila, Hau haila, Per hheisz, Swa hedhi borrowed from Ar

hhaith : standpoint [hhaithu] Per hheyth borrowed from Ar

hhaithia : standpoint [hhaithu] Hin haisiya, Per hheythiyat borrowed from Ar

hhaithu : where [?]

hhaitt : wall [hhatta]

hhaitta : enclosure [hhatta] Per hheytte borrowed from Ar

hhaiwan : animal, beast [hhayya] Aze heyvan, Ful hayawan, Gre haibani, Hin haivan, Ind haiwan, hewan, Per hheiwan, Swa hayawani, Taj hayvon, Tat khaivan, Tur hayvan, Uzb khayvon borrowed from Ar

hhaja : need, request; things, goods [ahhtaja] Ful haja, Hau haja, Hin hajat, Per hhajat, Swa haja, Taj hojat, Tur hacet borrowed from Ar

hhajaba : cover [Sem h-g-b, Mal hageb (brow), EgAr hhagib]

hhajal : partridge, guinea-fowl [Mal hagel, Heb chogla, Syr chagla, Tig hhagel]

hhajama : let blood [?]

hhajama : blood-letting; a shave [hhajama] Hin hajamat, Per hhajamat borrowed from Ar

hhajar : stone [EgAr hhagar, Mal hagra]

hhajaza : restrain, hinder; reserve [?]

hhajib : brow [hajaba]

hhajiz : barrier [hajaza]

hhajj : pilgrimage [hhajja] Ful hijju, Hin hhajj, Per hhajj, Swa haji, Tur hac borrowed from Ar

hhajja : go to pilgrimage [Sem hh-g-g, Heb chag (feast), Syr chaga, JNA khigga]

hhajja : spell [Heb haga]

hhajja : persuade [?]

hhajjam : blood-letter; a barber [hhajama] Hin hajjam, Per hhajjam borrowed from Ar

hhajji : pilgrim [hhajja] Ful alaji, Hau alhaji, Hin haji, Ind haji, Per hhaji, Tur haci borrowed from Ar

hhajm : format, size [?]

hhajz : reservation [hajaza]

hhaka : weave [Syr chawaka (weaver)]

hhaka : tell a tale [?]

hhakama : be strong; decide, rule, judge [Sem hh-k-m, Mal hakem, Akk chakamu (be wise), Heb chakham (wise), Syr chakima, BAram chakima, Amh hakim (doctor), Uga hhkm (be wise), Phoen hhkmt (knowledge)]

hhakim : wise man, doctor [hhakama] Aze hekim, Hin hakim, Ind hakim, Per hhakim, Tur hekim, Uzb khakim borrowed from Ar

hhakim : judge, ruler, governor [hhakama] Aze hakim, Hin hakim, Per hhakem, Swa hakimu, Tat khakim, Tur hakem, hakim, Uzb khokim borrowed from Ar

hhakimia : rule, sovereignity [hhakama] Aze hakimiyyet, Per hhakemiyat borrowed from Ar

hhakin : story-teller [hhaka]

hhakka : rub; scratch [Sem hh-k-k, Heb chikkekh, Hrs hhek (scratch), Tig hhakka]

hhal : state, position, condition; case; character [hhala] Aze hal, Ful hali, Hau hali, Hin hal, Per hhal, Swa hali, Tat khel, Tur hal, Uzb khol borrowed from Ar

hhala : change [?]

hhala : decorate [Sem hh-l-y]

hhala : state, condition [hhala] Aze halet, Hin halat, Per hhalat, Tur halet borrowed from Ar

hhalab : milk [hhalaba]

hhalaba : milch [Sem hh-l-b, Akk chalabu, Mal halib (milk), Heb chalav, JNA khalwa, Amh allaba (milch), Uga hhlb, Phoen hhlb]

hhalafa : swear [Sem hh-l-p, Akk chalapu (accuse), Mal halef (swear)]

hhalagha : comb (wool) [?]

hhalal : permitted [hhalla] Aze halal, Ful halal, Gre halali, Hau halal, Hin halal, Ind halal, Per hhalal, Swa halali, Tur helal borrowed from Ar

hhalama : dream [Sem hh-l-m, Mal holma (a dream), Heb chalom, Syr chelma, JNA khilma, BAram chalma, Hrs hhaylem (to dream), Amh alleme, Tig hhalme, Uga hhlm]

hhalan : now; immediately [hhala] Per hhala borrowed from Ar

hhalaqa : shave [Heb chalaq (smooth)]

hhalazun : spiral; snail [Sem hh-l-z-n, Heb chillazon] Per hhalzun, Tur helezon borrowed from Ar

hhalf : oath; alliance [hhalafa] Per hhalf borrowed from Ar

hhali : ornament, jewel [hhala]

hhalib : milk [hhalaba] Per hhalib borrowed from Ar

hhall : solution [hhalla] Hin hall, Per hhall borrowed from Ar

hhall : vinegar [Sem hh-l-l, Akk challu, JNA khala]

hhalla : bore through; solve; analyze [Sem hh-l-l, Heb chalul (hollow), Syr cheleyla, JNA khilol]

hhalla : be permitted [?]

hhalla : get off, settle [?]

hhallagh : comber (of wool) [hhalagha] Per hhallagh borrowed from Ar

hhallaq : barber [hhalaqa] Per hhallaq borrowed from Ar

hhallaqa : circle, hover [Sem hh-l-q, Mal holqa (ring), Hrs hhelqemot (ring, circle)]

hhalq : throat; gums [Sem hh-l-q, Mal halq (mouth), Tig hhelqem (throat, larynx)] Hin halak, Per hhalq borrowed from Ar

hhalqa : ring [hhallaqa] Bul halka, Gre halkas, Hin halka, Per hhalqe, Tur halka, Uzb khalqa borrowed from Ar

hhaluwa : be sweet [Sem hh-l-w, Mal helu (sweet), Syr chalya, JNA khly (be sweet)]

hhalwa : sweetmeat [hhaluwa] Bul halva, Ful alewa, Gre halbas, Hau alawa, Hin halva, Per hhalwa, Rom halva, Tur helva, Uzb kholva borrowed from Ar

hhalwani : confectioner [hhaluwa]

hham : father-in-law [Sem hh-m, Mal hmu, Akk emu, Heb cham, JNA khimyana, Amh amat]

hhama : mud [Mal hama]

hhama : defend, protect [?]

hhamal : ram [Sem hh-m-l] Per hhamal borrowed from Ar

hhamala : bear [Sem hh-m-l, Mal hamal (tolerate)] Hau himili borrowed from Ar

hhamam : dove [?] Per hhamam borrowed from Ar

hhamaqa : be angry [maybe from a common Sem root hh-m (hot)] Swa hamaki borrowed from Ar

hhamaqa : stupidity [hhamiqa] Hin himakat, Per hhamaqat borrowed from Ar

hhamd : praise [hhamida] Per hhamd borrowed from Ar

hhami : protector; supporter [hhama] Aze hami, Hin hami, Per hhami borrowed from Ar

hhamia : be hot; be furious [hhamma]

hhamida : praise [Sem hh-m-d, Amh amed (hot ashes), Tig hhamed, Uga hhmd (crave)] Swa himidi borrowed from Ar

hhamila : leafy spot [Sem hh-m-l]

hhamim : hot [hhamma] Per hhamim borrowed from Ar

hhamiqa : be foolish [Sem hh-m-q]

hhamisz : acid; sour [hhamusza] Tur hamiz borrowed from Ar

hhaml : carrying [hhamala] Hin hhaml, Per hhaml borrowed from Ar

hhamla : attack [hhamala] Aze hemle, Hin hhamla, Per hhamle borrowed from Ar

hhamma : heat up [Sem hh-m-m, Mal ghomma (heat), Akk emmu (hot), Heb cham, Syr chuma (heat), JNA khimma, Uga hhm]

hhammal : porter, carrier [hhamala] Alb hamall, Aze hambal, Bul hamalin, Gre hamales, Hin hhammal, Per hhamal, Rom hamal, Swa hamali, Tur hamal borrowed from Ar

hhammam : hot bath [hhamma] Aze hamam, Gre hamami, Hin hhammam, Per hhammam, Swa hamamu, Taj hamom, Tur hamam, Uzb khammom borrowed from Ar

hhammara : paint red [Sem hh-m-r, Mal ahmar (red), hamrija (soil) Akk emeru (be red), Heb chomer (clay), Tig hhamer (red-brown)]

hhamusza : be sour [Sem hh-m-sz, Akk emssu (sour), Heb chamutz, JNA khamussa, Hrs hhamesz, Uga hhmss (vinegar)]

hhamsz : acid [hhamusza] Per hhamsz borrowed from Ar

hhana : bend [Sem hh-n-n, Akk enu (change)]

hhana : incline, sympathize [Sem hh-n-n, Mal hanin (merciful), Akk enenu (be favorable), Heb chen (grace), Syr chanana, Uga hhnn (be favorable), Phoen hhn (favor)]

hhana : be green [?]

hhanafi : pagan [Syr chanfa]

hhanafia : tap, hydrant [?]

hhanak : palate [Sem hh-y-k, Mal hanek, Heb chekh, Syr cheka, Tig hhanek]

hhanash : snake [Mal hanex (earthworm), Heb nachash]

hhani : bending [hhana]

hhanin : longing [hhana]

hhanjara : larynx [Sem hh-n-g-r, Hrr hhnngr (throat)]

hhanut : inn, shop [Sem hh-n-w, Mal hanut, Heb chanut, Syr chanautha, Phoen mchnt (camp)]

hhaqada : hate [?]

hhaqana : inject [?]

hhaqara : despise, disrespect, insult [Sem hh-q-r, Gez hhqr]

hhaqara : contempt [hhaqara] Aze heqaret, Hin hikara, Per hhaqarat, Tur hakaret borrowed from Ar

hhaqiba : suitcase [?]

hhaqiqa : truth [hhaqqa] Aze heqiqet, Ful hakika, Hin hakikat, Ind hakikat, Per hhaqiqat, Swa hakika, Tat khakiykat, Tur hakikat, Uzb khaqiqat borrowed from Ar

hhaqiqatan : truly, in fact [hhaqqa] Hin hakikatan, Per hhaqiqatan, Taj haqiqatan, Tur hakikaten borrowed from Ar

hhaqir : contemptible [hhaqara] Hin hakir, Per hhaqir borrowed from Ar

hhaql : field [Sem hh-q-l, Akk eqlu, Heb cheqla, Syr chaqla]

hhaqq : right, truth [hhaqqa] Aze haqq, Ful hakka, Hau hakki, Hin hak, Ind hak, Per hhaqq, Swa haki, Taj hak, Tat khak, Tur hak, Uzb khaq borrowed from Ar

hhaqqa : be right [Sem hh-q-q, Mal haqq (justice), Heb choq (law), JNA chaqqa (true), Amh haqq (truth), hegg (law)]

hhaqqan : truly [hhaqqa] Hau hakkan, Per hhaqqan borrowed from Ar

hhaqqania : justice [hhaqqa] Per hhaqqaniyat, Tur hakkaniyet borrowed from Ar

hhaqqaqa : realize [hhaqqa]

hhaqw : loin [Sem hh-q-w, Heb cheq (lap), Ara hheqa, Sab hhqw, Jib hhaqhheq, Gez hhaqe, Tig hheqeq (hips)]

hhara : whiten [Sem hh-w-r, Heb chiwer (pale), Syr hewara (white), Hrs hhewer (black)]

hhara : roll, turn [Sem hh-w-r, Tig hhore (go)]

hhara : perplex, confuse [?]

hhara : town quarter [hhara]

hharaj : thicket, dense wood [Sem hh-r-g]

hharaj : dire straits [hharija]

hharaka : movement [hharraka] Aze hereket, Ful harka, Hau harka, Hin harkat, Per hharakat, Tat khereket, Tur hareket, Uzb kharakat borrowed from Ar

hharam : prohibited; holy; women’s quarter [hharuma] Aze haram, Ful haram, Gre haremi, Hau haram, Hin haram, Hun harem, Ind haram, Per hharam, Swa haramu, Tur haram, harem borrowed from Ar

hharama : rob [maybe from a common Sem root hh-r (slit, cut)]

hharami : robber [hharama] Per hharami, Swa haramia, Hun haramia borrowed from Ar

hharaqa : burn [Mal haraq, Heb charakh (singe), Syr charak, JNA khrkh, Hrs hhroq, Uga hhrk]

hharara : heat, fever [hharra] Aze heraret, Hin hararat, Per hhararat, Swa harara, Tur hararet, Uzb kharorat borrowed from Ar

hharas : guard, watch [hharasa] Per hhares borrowed from Ar

hharasa : guard, watch [Mal hares (look), Uga hhrss (reserve)]

hharasha : scratch [Mal ahrax (rough), Akk charasu, churshu (thicket), Heb choresh]

hharassa : long for, want eagerly [maybe from a common Sem root hh-r (be hot), cf. Uga hhrr (burn)]

hharatha : plough [Sem hh-r-th, Mal harat, Akk ereshu, Heb charash, Amh arrese, Tig hharsa, Uga hhrth]

hharaza : guard, watch [hharasa]

hharb : war [hhariba] Aze herb, Hin harb, Per hharb, Tur harb, Uzb kharb borrowed from Ar

hharbi : military [hhariba] Per hharbi, Tat kherbi borrowed from Ar

hharf : sharp edge [Sem hh-r-p, Heb charif (sharp), Syr cherfa, churfa (edge), JNA kharipa (sharp)]

hharf : letter; consonant [hharrafa] Aze herf, Hau harafi, Hin harf, Per hharf, Swa herufi, Taj harf, Tat kheref, Tur harf, Uzb kharf borrowed from Ar

hhariba : be furious [Sem hh-r-b, Mal harbat (war), Akk arbu (waste), charabu (be ruined), Heb charav, cherev (sword), Syr cherab (be ruined), JNA khrw, charb (war), charba (sword), Uga hhrb]

hharif : customer; fellow; rival [?] Hin harif, Per hharif borrowed from Ar

hharija : be narrow; critical [?]

hharim : of women [hharuma] Per hharim borrowed from Ar

hhariq : fire [hharaqa] Per hhariq borrowed from Ar

hharir : silk [Sem hh-r-r, Mal harir, Amh harr] Per hharir, Swa hariri borrowed from Ar

hharis : guard, watch [hharasa] Ind haris, Per hhares borrowed from Ar

hhariss : eager [hharassa] Per hhariss borrowed from Ar

hharith : farmer [hharatha] Ind haris, Per hhareth borrowed from Ar

hharr : hot; heat [hharra] Per hharr borrowed from Ar

hharra : be free [Sem hh-r-r, Heb cherut (freedom), Syr chera (free)]

hharra : be hot [Sem hh-r-r, Mal hrara (heat), JNA kharkharitha (fever), Amh arrere (burn), harur (heat), Tig hharra (be hot), hharere (burn)]

hharraf : sharp; sharp-witted [hharf] Hin harraf, Per hharraf borrowed from Ar

hharrafa : make crooked, make oblique [?]

hharraka : move [Mal harrek] Swa haraka borrowed from Ar

hharrara : liberate [hharra]

hharshaf : fish scales [Akk arsuppu (carp)] Per charshaf borrowed from Ar

hharth : ploughing [hharatha] Per hharth borrowed from Ar

hharub : carob [from Sum harub] Eng carob, Gre haroupi, Tur harup borrowed from Ar

hharuma : be prohibited [Sem hh-r-m, Akk charamu (separate), Heb cherem (prohibited), Syr achrem, JNA charama, Uga hhrm]

hhasa : feel [Sem hh-s-y, Mal hass, Heb chash, Amh hewas (sense), Uga hhwsh (excite)]

hhasa : soup [tahhasawa]

hhasab : reckoning [hhasaba] Tur hesap borrowed from Ar

hhasaba : think, reckon [Sem hh-sh-b, Mal haseb, Akk chashabu, Heb chashav, JNA khshw, Hrs hhesob (count, think), Amh asebe, hasab (idea), hisab (account), Uga hhthb (count), Phoen hhshb (think)]

hhasad : envy [hhasada] Aze hesed, Hau hassada, Ind hasad, Per hhasad, Swa husudu, Tur haset borrowed from Ar

hhasada : feel envy [?]

hhasama : finish, decide [?]

hhasan : good, nice [hhasuna] Hin hasin, Per hhasan borrowed from Ar

hhasas : sensitive [hhasa] Aze hessas, Per hhasas, Tur hassas borrowed from Ar

hhasasia : sensitivity [hhasa]

hhasb : counting, quantity [hhasaba] Hin hasb, Per hhasb borrowed from Ar

hhasha : fill, stuff [Mal hexa]

hhashama : shame [?]

hhashara : gather [?]

hhashara : insect; mosquito [?] Ind hasyarat, Per hhashare borrowed from Ar

hhashasha : mow [Sem hh-sh-sh, Mal haxix (grass)]

hhashia : rim [?] Hin hashiya, Per hhashiye borrowed from Ar

hhashish : grass [hhashasha] Hun hasis, Gre hasisi, Per hhashish, Tur hasis borrowed from Ar

hhashr : meeting [hhashara] Hin hashr, Per hhashr borrowed from Ar

hhashw : filling [hhasha]

hhasib : calculator [hhasaba]

hhasib : attention!

hhasiba : think [hhasaba]

hhasira : feel pity [Mal hasra (pity)]

hhasra : trouble; sorrow [hhasira] Aze hesret, Hin hasrat, Ind hasrat, Per hhasrat, Tat khesret borrowed from Ar

hhassa : have a share [?]

hhassaba : macadamize [Heb chatzav (carve)]

hhassad : harvest [hhassada] Tur hasat borrowed from Ar

hhassada : mow [Akk essedu, Mal hasad, Amh attshede]

hhassala : exist; acquire [Syr cheshal (fabricate, forge)]

hhassara : encircle; restrict [Sem hh-s-r, Heb chatzer (court), Uga hhdzr (house, residence)]

hhassba : measles [Mal hosba, Heb chatzevet]

hhassd : harvest [hhassada] Per hhassd, Tur hasat borrowed from Ar

hhassil : result, product [hhassala] Aze hasil, Hau hasali, Hin hasil, Ind hasil, Per hhassel borrowed from Ar

hhassila : crop, yield [hhassala]

hhassir : mat [Sem hh-ss-r, Mal hasira, Heb chatzir] Per hhassir, Ser asura, Tur hasir borrowed from Ar

hhassl : product [hhassala] Ful hasali, Ind hasil, Per hhassel borrowed from Ar

hhassr : enclosure [hhassara]

hhassuna : be fortified [Sem hh-ss-n, Heb chizzen (strengthen), Syr chesan (overwhelm)]

hhasuna : be good, nice [?]

hhasw : soup [tahhasawa]

hhasszara : make appear [hhaszara]

hhasza : menstruate [Sem hh-y-sz, Uga hhyss (sweat)]

hhaszara : be present, appear [?]

hhaszara : hold a lecture [haszara]

hhaszara : be settled, civilized [haszara]

hhaszara : culture, civilization [haszara]

hhaszir : present, available [hhaszara] Aze hazir, Hin hazir, Per hhaszer, Taj hozir, Tur hazir borrowed from Ar

hhaszira : capital city [maybe from a common Sem root hh-d (enclose)]

hhaszra : presence; highness, majesty [hhaszara] Hin hazrat, Ind hadrat, Per hhaszrat, Tur hazret borrowed from Ar

hhata : until [?] Per hhata, Swa hata borrowed from Ar

hhatta : encircle, surround; guard [Mal hajt (wall)]

hhatta : settle [?]

hhatta : even [?] Hau hatta borrowed from Ar

hhattab : firewood [hhattaba] Per hhattab borrowed from Ar

hhattaba : gather firewood [Sem hh-tt-b, Mal hatab (firewood), Heb chattav (hew), Uga httb (gather firewood)]

hhauba : sin [Syr chaube, Ara chwb (commit a sin)]

hhaul : year [Soq hhaul]

hhaul : force [hhail] Hin haul, Per hhoul borrowed from Ar

hhaul : around, approximately [hhala] Per hhoul borrowed from Ar

hhaur : poplar [Syr chaura]

hhaush : courtyard [?] Per hhoush borrowed from Ar

hhaussal : crop of bird [Mal hawsla] Hin hausla, Per hhoussele borrowed from Ar

hhausz : pool [Mal hawt] Hin hauz, Per hhousz, Tur havuz borrowed from Ar

hhauwala : change [hhala]

hhawa : gather [?]

hhawala : try, make tricks [?]

hhawala : order to pay; bill of exchange [hhala] Per hhawale borrowed from Ar

hhawara : dispute [Gez hhwr (apostle)]

hhawari : disciple, apostle [hhawara] Ful hawari, Per hhawari, Tur havari borrowed from Ar

hhawin : including [?] Hin havi, Per hhawi borrowed from Ar

hhaya : life [hhayya] Aze heyat, Hin hhayat, Ind hayat, Per hhayat, Tur hayat, Uzb khayot borrowed from Ar

hhaya : shame, modesty [hhayia] Aze heya, Hin hhaya, Per hhaya, Swa haya borrowed from Ar

hhayawan : animal [hhayya] Tur hayvan, Ind haiwan, hewan borrowed from Ar

hhayia : shame [?]

hhayya : live [Sem hh-y-w, Mal haj, Heb chay, Syr chaya, JNA khy, Amh heyaw, Uga hhyy, Phoen hhy]

hhayya : snake [Sem hh-w-y, Syr chewya, JNA khuwwe, Ara hi (worm), Gur awiye]

hhayya : greet [hhayya]

hhazama : tie, gird [Syr chzama (girdle)]

hhazana : sadden [Sem hh-z-n]

hhazara : guess [?]

hhazin : sad [hhazana] Aze hezin, Per hhazin borrowed from Ar

hhazina : be sad [hhazana]

hhaziran : June [Syr cheziran]

hhazuma : be resolute [?]

hhazzaba : crowd together [Amh hezb (people)]

hhibr : ink [Sem hh-b-r, Akk eberu (paint)] Per hhebr borrowed from Ar

hhidda : sharpness; violence, fury [hhadda] Aze hiddet, Per hheddat borrowed from Ar

hhidha : shoe [ihhtadhawa]

hhidha : opposite to [hhadha]

hhifadza : protection [hhafidza] Hin hifaza, Per hhefadzat borrowed from Ar

hhifdz : protection [hhafidza]

hhijab : separating wall; veil [hhajaba] Ind higab, Per hhejab borrowed from Ar

hhijama : letting blood; shaving, haircut [hhajama] Ind hajamat, Per hhajamat borrowed from Ar

hhijr : lap [Mal hogor]

hhikaya : story, legend [hhaka] Aze hekaye, Hau hikaya, Hin hikayat, Per hhekayat, Swa hekaya, Tat khikeya, Tur hikaye, Uzb khikoya borrowed from Ar

hhikka : itch [Sem hh-k-k, Mal hakk, Akk ekeku (scratch), JNA khyk]

hhikma : wisdom [hhakama] Ful hikma, Hau hikima, Hin hikmat, Ind hikma, Per hhekmat, Swa hekima borrowed from Ar

hhila : trick; deceit, fraud; pretence [hhawala] Aze hiyle, Ful hila, Hin hila, Ind kilah, Per hhile, Tat kheile borrowed from Ar

hhilia : ornament, jewel [hhala] Per hhelye borrowed from Ar

hhimar : donkey [Sem hh-m-r, Mal hmar, Akk imeru, Heb chamor, Syr chemara, JNA khmara, Uga hhmr]

hhimaya : protection [hhama] Hin himayat, Per hhemayat, Swa himaya borrowed from Ar

hhimmas : chick-pea [Heb chimtza]

hhimia : diet [hhama]

hhin : time [Mal hin] Per hhin borrowed from Ar

hhinama : during [hhin]

hhinatta : embalming [Sem hh-n-t, Heb chanatt (embalm)]

hhink : experience [ahhnaka]

hhinna : henna [hhana] Hin hina, Per hhana borrowed from Ar

hhintta : wheat [Sem hh-t-t, Akk uttat (barley), Heb chitta (wheat), Syr chettha, JNA khitte, Uga hhtt’t] Per hhentte borrowed from Ar

hhirasa : protection, custody [hharasa] Hin hirasat, Per hherasat borrowed from Ar

hhirba : chameleon [Akk arbabillu]

hhirdhaun : lizard [Syr hhardana, Amh ar‘ano, Ebl udau]

hhirfa : handicraft [hharif]

hhirm : a ban [hharuma]

hhirrif : sharp, pungent [hharf] Swa harufu borrowed from Ar

hhirsh : thick bush [hharasha]

hhirss : eagerness; anger [hharassa] Aze hirs, Hin hirs, Per hherss borrowed from Ar

hhis : feeling, sense [hhasa] Aze hiss, Hin hiss, Per hhes, Tat khis, Tur his, Uzb khis borrowed from Ar

hhisab : counting, reckoning; account, check [hhasaba] Aze hesab, Ful hisabu, Hin hisab, Per hhesab, Swa hesabu, Taj hisob, Tat hisap, isep, Tur hesap, Uzb khisob borrowed from Ar

hhishma : shame; modesty [hhashama] Hin hishma, Per hheshmat borrowed from Ar

hhissa : share [hhassa] Hin hissa, Per hhesse, Swa hisa borrowed from Ar

hhissan : stallion [?] Per hhessan borrowed from Ar

hhissar : fortress; blockade [hhassara] Hin hisar, Per hhessar borrowed from Ar

hhissn : fortress [Syr chetzna] Per hhessn borrowed from Ar

hhiszn : bosom [Sem hh-sz-n, Mal hdan (embrace), Heb chotzen (bosom), JNA khidhya, Gez hheszn (lap), Amh tshen, Tig hhessen] Per hheszn borrowed from Ar

hhiwar : dialogue, dispute [hhawara]

hhizam : girdle [hhazama]

hhizb : party [hhazzaba] Per hhezb borrowed from Ar

hhubb : love [hhabba] Per hhobb, Swa huba borrowed from Ar

hhubla : pregnant [hhabila] Per hhobla borrowed from Ar

hhudud : limits; norms [hhadda] Aze hüdud, Per hhodud borrowed from Ar

hhujja : proof; argument; excuse [hhajja] Ful hujja, Hau hujja, Hin hujjat, Per hhojjat borrowed from Ar

hhujra : room; cell [maybe akin to chidr] Aze hücre, Per hhojre, Tur hücre borrowed from Ar

hhukm : order, command, edict; sentence, judgment, verdict [hhakama] Alb gjyqim, Aze hökm, Hin hukm, Per hhokm, Swa hukumu, Tat khökem, Tur hüküm borrowed from Ar

hhukuma : government [hhakama] Aze hökumet, Hau hukuma, Hin hukumat, Per hhokumat, Tat khökümet, Tur hükümet borrowed from Ar

hhulm : a dream [hhalama] Per hholm borrowed from Ar

hhulqum : throat [hhalq] Ind halkum, Per hholqum borrowed from Ar

hhulw : sweet [hhaluwa] Per hholw borrowed from Ar

hhumma : fever [hhamma] Hau himma, Per hhomma, Swa homa, Tur humma borrowed from Ar

hhummus : chickpeas [hhimmas] Gre houmos, Tur humus borrowed from Ar

hhunk : experience [hhink]

hhunu : compassion [Sem hh-n-y]

hhuqna : rinsing; injection [hhaqana] Per hhoqne borrowed from Ar

hhuqqa : jar, pot; box; hookah [hhaqqa] Hin hukka, Per hhoqqe borrowed from Ar

hhuquq : rights, law [hhaqqa] Aze hüquq, Per hhoquq, Tat khokuk, Tur hukuk borrowed from Ar

hhuquqi : juristic, civil, legal [hhaqqa] Per hhoquqi, Tur hukuki borrowed from Ar

hhur : houri [hhara] Hin hur, Per hhur borrowed from Ar

hhurma : ban; attention, respect [hharuma] Aze hörmet, Ful alhorma, Ind hormat, Per hhormat, Tat khörmet, Tur hürmet, Uzb khurmat borrowed from Ar

hhurr : free [hharra] Per hhorr, Swa huru, Tur hür, Uzb khur borrowed from Ar

hhurria : freedom [hharra] Aze hürriyet, Per hhorriyat, Tur hürriyet, Uzb khurriyat borrowed from Ar

hhursh : thick bush [hharasha]

hhusn : beauty [hhasuna] Hin husn, Per hhosn borrowed from Ar

hhuszur : presence; attendance; honor; rest; pleasure [hhaszara] Aze hüzur, Hin huzur, Per hhoszur, Swa hudhuri, Tat khozur, Tur huzur borrowed from Ar

hhut : fish [Sem hh-w-t, Mal huta] Per hhut borrowed from Ar

hhuzma : bundle [hhazama]

hhuzn : sadness, grief [hhazana] Aze hüzün, Per hhozn, Swa huzuni, Tur hüzün borrowed from Ar

I

i‘ada : repetition [‘adda]

i‘ana : aid [‘awana]

i‘az : advice [wa‘adza]

ibham : great toe, thumb [Akk ubanu (finger), Heb bohen (thumb), Hrs hhaben, Ebl bahanu] Hau ibhami, Per ebham borrowed from Ar

ibham : darkness [abhama]

ibil : camel [Akk ibilu]

iblagh : report [balagha]

iblis : devil [from Gre diabolos] Aze iblis, Hin iblis, Ind iblis, Per eblis, Swa ibilisi, Tat iblis, Tur iblis borrowed from Ar

ibn : son [tabanna] Per ebn borrowed from Ar

ibna : daughter [tabanna]

ibra : needle [Sem ’-b-r, Mal labra]

ibtada : begin [bada]

ibtida : beginning [bada] Aze ibtida, Hin ibtida, Per ebteda borrowed from Ar

ibtt : arm-pit [Hrs ebatt, Amh bebbet] Per ebtt borrowed from Ar

ichlaq : morals [chalaqa] Hin ikhlak borrowed from Ar

ichlass : affection; honesty [chalassa] Hin ikhlas, Ind ikhlas, Per echlass borrowed from Ar

ichra‘a : invent [?]

ichtafa : disappear [chafia]

ichtara : choose [chara]

ichtassara : shorten [Sem ch-ss-r, Amh attere, attsher (short)]

ichtatama : finish [chatama]

ichtiar : choice, option [chara] Aze ixtiyar, Hin ikhtiyar, Ind ikhtiar, Per echtiyar, Tat ixtiyar, Tur ihtiyar borrowed from Ar

ichtibar : examination [chabara]

ichtilaf : contradiction; discord, disagreement [chalafa] Aze ixtilaf, Hin ikhtilaf, Ind ikhtilaf, Per echtelaf, Tur ihtilaf borrowed from Ar

ichtilal : disturbance [achlala]

ichtira‘ : invention [ichra‘a] Aze ixtira, Per echtera‘, Tur ihtira borrowed from Ar

ichtissar : abbreviation [ichtassara] Aze ixtisar, Per echtessar, Tur ihtisar borrowed from Ar

ichtissass : specialization [chassa] Aze ixtisas, Per echtessass, Tur ihtisas borrowed from Ar

ichttar : notification [chattara]

ichwan : brothers [ach] Hin ikhvan, Ind ikhwan, Per echwan borrowed from Ar

ida‘ : payment, deposit [wada‘a] Per ida‘, Tur eda borrowed from Ar

i‘dad : preparation [‘adda]

idara : direction; administration; government [adara] Aze idare, Per edare, Swa idara, Tat idare, Tur idare borrowed from Ar

iddachara : store [dhachara]

iddi‘a : claim, charge [da‘a] Aze iddia, Per edde‘a, Tur iddia borrowed from Ar

iddichar : storage [dhachara]

idh : as, then [Heb az, Uga id]

idha : pain, torture [adhia] Hin iza, Per idha borrowed from Ar

idha‘ : expansion [dha‘a]

idhaka : then [idha + ka]

idhn : permission [adhina] Hau izni, Ind izin, Per edhn, Swa idhini, Tur izin borrowed from Ar

idla : contribution [Sem d-l-w, Uga dlw (offer oneself)]

idman : addiction [idman]

idrak : perception, intelligence [adraka] Aze idrak, Per edrak, Tur idrak borrowed from Ar

idzhar : display, disclosure [dzahara] Hin izhar, Per edzhar borrowed from Ar

ifa : fulfilling [wafa] Hin ifay, Per ifa borrowed from Ar

ifada : usefulness; expression [afada] Aze ifade, Per efade, Tur ifade borrowed from Ar

iflas : bankruptcy [fallasa] Aze iflas, Per eflas, Tur iflas borrowed from Ar

ifranji : European [from Germanic frank] Hin farangi, Per firangi borrowed from Ar

ifratt : excess [farratta] Hin ifrat, Per efratt borrowed from Ar

ifraz : separation [faraza] Aze ifraz, Per efraz, Tur ifraz borrowed from Ar

iftakara : think [fakkara]

iftaqara : use, need [faqura]

iftaraqa : be split [faraqa]

iftatahha : open [fatahha]

iftichar : honor, pride [fachara] Aze iftixar, Per eftechar, Tur iftihar borrowed from Ar

ighba : slander [from Cushitic, cp. Hausa gaba (enmity)]

ighma : swoon [ghama]

ightabatta : be glad [ghabatta]

ihana : insult [hana]

ihhatta : encirclement; surroundings; inclusion [hhatta] Aze ehate, Per ehhatte, Tur ihata borrowed from Ar

ihhlil : urethra [Syr hheltha (vagina), Tig hhelil (urethra)]

ihhsan : good deed [hhasuna] Ind ihsan, Per ehhsan, Tur ihsan borrowed from Ar

ihhtadha : put on shoes [hhadha]

ihhtafala : celebrate [hhafala]

ihhtaja : need, necessitate [hhaja]

ihhtajja : make a protest [hhajja]

ihhtalla : occupy [?]

ihhtaraqa : burn [hharaqa]

ihhtaris : precaution [hharasa]

ihhtawa : contain [hhawa]

ihhtiaj : need, poverty [hhaja] Aze ehtiyac, Per ehhtiyaj, Tat ikhtiyadzh, Tur ihtiyac borrowed from Ar

ihhtiatt : precaution; reserves [hhatta] Aze ehtiyat, Hin ehtyat, Per ehhtiyatt, Tur ihtiyat borrowed from Ar

ihhtijaj : protest [hhajja]

ihhtilal : occupation [ihhtalla]

ihhtimal : possibility, probability [hhamala] Aze ehtimal, Per ehhtemal, Taj ehtimol, Tur ihtimal borrowed from Ar

ihhtiram : honor, respect [hharuma] Aze ehtiram, Per ehhteram, Tat ikhtiram, Tur ihtiram borrowed from Ar

ihhtiraz : precaution [hharaza] Per ehhteraz, Tur ihtiraz borrowed from Ar

ihtamma : care for [hamma]

ihtimam : interest [hamma]

i‘jab : favor [a‘jaba]

ijaba : positive answer, agreement; fulfillment [jawab] Hau ijaba, Ind ijabat, Per ejabat borrowed from Ar

ijabi : positive [jawab]

ijad : creation; contrivance [wajada] Hin ijad, Per ijad borrowed from Ar

ijar : renting [ajara]

ijara : leasing, hire, rent; wages, commission [ajara] Aze icare, Hau ijara, Hin ijara, Per ejare, Swa ijara, Tur icar borrowed from Ar

ijaza : permission [jaza] Aze icaze, Hin ijazat, Per ejazat, Tur icazet borrowed from Ar

ijbar : compulsion [jabara] Per ejbar, Tur icbar borrowed from Ar

ijbari : compulsory [jabara] Aze icbari, Per ejbari borrowed from Ar

ijir : foot [LiAr ijir, Amh eger]

ijjass : pear [LiAr njass, Heb agass]

ijlas : session, meeting [jalasa] Aze iclas, Hin ijlas, Per ejlas borrowed from Ar

ijma‘ : agreement [jama‘a]

ijmal : overview, review, summary [jamala] Aze icmal, Per ejmal borrowed from Ar

ijra : causing to circulate; execution [jara] Hin ijra, Per ejra borrowed from Ar

ijtaza : pass, cross [jaza]

ijtim‘a : assembly, commune, society [jama‘a] Per ejtema‘, Tur ictimai borrowed from Ar

ijtim‘ai : public, social, collective [jama‘a] Per ejtema‘i, Tat idzhtimagiy, Tur ictimai borrowed from Ar

iklil : crown [kallala]

ikrah : force, violence [kariha]

ikram : respect [karuma] Hin ikram, Per ekram borrowed from Ar

iktara : rent [karia]

iktaratha : be anxious, care about [karatha]

iktasaba : acquire [kasaba]

iktashafa : discover [kashafa]

ila : to [Sem l, Mal lil, Akk la, Heb el, JNA il, lal-, Amh la, Uga l, Phoen ’l, l]

ilah : deity [Sem ’-l, Mal alla, Akk ilu, Heb el, elohim, Syr alaha, JNA ilaha, BAram ’lh, Uga il, ilh, Phoen ’l]

ilahi : divine [ilah] Ful ilahi, Hau ilahi, Hin ilahi, Tat ilahi, Tur ilahi borrowed from Ar

i‘lam : information [‘alima]

i‘lan : declaration [‘alana] Aze elan, Per e‘lan, Swa ilani, Tat iglan, Tur ilan borrowed from Ar

ilham : inspiration [lahima] Aze ilham, Hau ilhami, Per elham, Tat ilham, Tur ilham borrowed from Ar

ilhhad : atheism [lahhada]

illa : unless; except; without [alla] Per ella borrowed from Ar

iltamasa : request [?]

iltaqa : meet [laqia]

iltifat : attention [lafata] Hin iltifat, Per eltefat borrowed from Ar

iltihab : inflammation [lahiba] Aze iltihab, Per eltehab, Tur iltihap borrowed from Ar

iltihhaq : accession [lahhiqa]

iltija : (asking for) asylum; entreaty [laja] Hin iltija, Per elteja borrowed from Ar

iltimas : request, petition [iltamasa] Hin iltamas, Per eltemas, Taj iltimos, Tur iltimas borrowed from Ar

iltiqa : encounter [laqia] Per elteqa borrowed from Ar

iltiqatt : reading; reception [laqatta] Per elteqatt borrowed from Ar

iltizam : duty [lazima] Per eltezam borrowed from Ar

ilzam : obligation; accusation [lazima] Hin ilzam, Per elzam borrowed from Ar

imam : priest [imama] Ful imamu, Hin imam, Ind imam, Per emam, Swa imamu, Tur imam borrowed from Ar

imama : lead, precede [Sem ’-m-m]

iman : faith [amana] Ful imana, Hau imani, Hin iman, Ind iman, Per iman, Swa imani, Tur iman borrowed from Ar

imara : emirate; command [amara] Ful imrati, Hin imarat, Per emarat borrowed from Ar

imdad : help [madda] Hin imdad, Per emdad, Tur imdat borrowed from Ar

imkan : possibility, ability, capacity [makuna] Aze imkan, Hin imkan, Ind imkan, Per emkan, Swa yamkini, Taj imkon, Tur imkan borrowed from Ar

imla : spelling, orthography; dictation [amla] Aze imla, Hin imla, Per emla, Swa imla, Tur imla borrowed from Ar

imna : ejaculation [amnawa]

imra : man [mar]

imsza : signature [masza] Aze imza, Per emsza, Tat imza, Tur imza borrowed from Ar

imtalaka : acquire [malaka]

imtana‘a : refuse [mana‘a]

imtiaz : distinction, privilege, concession [maza] Aze imtiyaz, Hin imtiyaz, Per emtiyaz, Tur imtiyaz borrowed from Ar

imtihhan : examination [mahhana] Aze imtahan, Hin imtahan, Per emtehhan, Swa mtihani, Tur imtihan borrowed from Ar

imtina‘ : refusal [mana‘a] Aze imtina, Per emtena‘ borrowed from Ar

in : when [Heb im, Syr en]

ina : vessel [Sem ’-n-y, Heb oniya, Uga any]

in‘am : favour; gift, gratuity, tip [na‘im] Hin inam, Per en‘am borrowed from Ar

in‘aqada : be tied; conclude [‘aqada]

in‘ash : refreshing [‘asha]

in‘azala : be isolated [‘azala]

inbasatta : expand; be glad [basatta]

inchafasza : be reduced [chafasza]

indafa‘a : hurry [dafa‘a]

indahasha : be amazed [dahisha]

indamala : heal [damila]

indhar : warning [nadhira]

infa‘ala : be excited [fa‘ala]

infajara : explode [fajjara]

infaq : consumption, expense [nafaqa]

infiraj : relaxation [faraja]

infissal : division; decision [fassala] Hin infisal, Per enfessal borrowed from Ar

inha : end [naha]

inhara : break up [hara]

inhhana : bend [hhana]

inhharafa : deviate [hharafa]

inhhidar : descent [hhadara]

inhhina : curve [hhana]

in‘ikas : reflection [‘akasa] Aze inikas, Per en‘ekas borrowed from Ar

ina : vessel [Sem n-w-y, Akk unutu (tools), Heb oniya (boat)]

inhhissar : encirclement; monopoly [hhassara] Hin inhisar, Per enhhessar borrowed from Ar

injass : pear [ijjass]

injaz : execution [najaza]

injil : gospel [from Gre evangelion] Ful linjila, Hin injil, Ind injil, Per enjil, Swa injili, Tur incil borrowed from Ar

inkar : refusal, denial [nakira] Aze inkar, Hau inkari, Hin inkar, Ind inkar, Per enkar, Tur inkar borrowed from Ar

inkasara : be broken [kasara]

inkishaf : development [kashafa] Aze inkisaf, Per enkeshaf, Tur inkisaf borrowed from Ar

innama : only

inqadh : rescue, liberation [naqadha]

inqarahha : propose [?]

inqasama : split [qasama]

inqasza : be finished [qasza]

inqatta‘a : break up [qatta‘a]

inqilab : change; revolution; coup [qalaba] Hin inkalab, Per enqelab borrowed from Ar

ins : people [Sem n-sh, Mal nies, Akk nishu, Heb ish (man), anashim (people), Syr anasha (man), JNA nasha (person), BAram anasha (man), Uga nsh, Phoen ’sh]

insaba : flow [saba]

insahhaba : withdraw [sahhaba]

insan : man [ins] Aze insan, Hin insan, Ind insan, Per ensan, Tur insan borrowed from Ar

insania : humanity [ins] Hin insaniya, Per ensaniyat borrowed from Ar

insha : creation, composition; construction [nasha] Aze insa, Hin insha, Per ensha, Tur insa borrowed from Ar

inshaqqa : split [shaqqa]

inssaf : justice; conscience [nassafa] Aze insaf, Hin insaf, Ind insaf, Per enssaf, Tat insaf, Tur insaf borrowed from Ar

inssarafa : depart [ssarafa]

inszamma : join [szamma]

intabaha : pay attention [nabaha]

intachaba : choose, select [nachaba]

intadzara : take care [nadzara]

intafacha : swell [nafacha]

intaha : finish [naha]

intaj : production [nataja]

intaqada : criticize [naqada]

intaqassa : reduce [naqassa]

intasaba : be related [nasaba]

intashara : spread [nashara]

intassara : vanquish [nassara]

intibah : attention [nabaha]

intichab : choice, election [nachaba] Hin intakhab, Per entechab borrowed from Ar

intidzam : order, rule [nadzama] Aze intizam, Hin intazam, Per entedzam, Tur intizam borrowed from Ar

intidzar : expectation [nadzara] Aze intizar, Hin intazar, Per entedzar, Tur intizar borrowed from Ar

intifasza : revolt [nafasza]

intiha : end [naha] Hin intaha, Ind intaha, Per enteha, Tur intiha borrowed from Ar

intiqal : change; transfer [naqala] Hin intakal borrowed from Ar

intiqam : revenge [naqama] Aze intiqam, Hin intakam, Per enteqam, Tur intikam borrowed from Ar

intissar : victory [nassara]

inttiba‘ : impression [ttaba‘a]

inttilaq : start [ttallaqa]

inza‘aja : be anxious [za‘aja]

inzal : ejaculation; orgasm [nazila] Hau inzali, Per enzal borrowed from Ar

iqama : stay [qama]

iqbal : acceptance; admission; approach [qabila] Hin ikbal, Per eqbal borrowed from Ar

iqdam : going forward; initiative, measure [qadama] Hin ikdam, Per eqdam borrowed from Ar

iqlim : climate; region [from Gre klima] Aze iqlim, Ind iklim, Per eqlim borrowed from Ar

iqrar : confirmation, acknowledgement; confession [qarra] Hau ikrari, Hin ikrar, Ind ikrar, Per eqrar, Tur ikrar borrowed from Ar

iqtana : acquire [qana]

iqtaraba : go nearer [qaruba]

iqtarahha : propose [inqarahha]

iqtira‘ : elections [qara‘a]

iqtirab : approach [qaruba]

iqtirahh : proposal [inqarahha]

iqtisza : necessity [qasza]

iqtta‘ : feudalism [qatta‘a]

iqttissad : savings, economy [qassada] Aze iqtisad, Ind iktisad, Per eqtessad, Swa iktisadi, Tur iktisad borrowed from Ar

i‘rab : arabization [‘arraba]

irad : imports [warada]

irada : will, desire [arada] Hin irada, Per erade, Taj iroda, Tur irade borrowed from Ar

irdabb : an area measure [?]

irhab : terror [rahiba]

irsal : sending, broadcast [rasala] Hin irsal, Per ersal borrowed from Ar

irshad : lead, direction, command [rashada] Hin irshad, Per ershad borrowed from Ar

irtafa‘a : rise [rafa‘a]

irtafaqa : be propped up [Heb marpeq (elbow)]

irtakaba : commit [Sem r-k-b, Heb hirkiv (assemble)]

irth : heritage [waritha] Aze irs, Per erth, Tur irs borrowed from Ar

irtija‘ : reaction [raja‘a] Aze irtica, Per erteja‘, Tur irtica borrowed from Ar

is‘af : assistance [sa‘afa]

isara : captivity, slavery [asara] Per esarat, Tur esaret borrowed from Ar

isfanach : spinach [from Middle Per aspinag]

isfanj : sponge [from Gre spongos] Per esfanj, Swa sifongo borrowed from Ar

isfidaj : ceruse [?]

is’hal : diarrhoea [sahula]

ishara : signal [shara] Aze isare, Ind isyarat, Hin isharat, Per esharat, Swa ishara, Tur isaret borrowed from Ar

ishghal : occupation [shaghala] Aze isgal, Per ‘eshghal, Tur isgal borrowed from Ar

ishtaghala : be busy [shaghala]

ishtaha : appetite [shaha] Aze istaha, Per eshteha, Tur istah borrowed from Ar

ishtara : buy [shara]

ishtaraka : participate [sharika]

ishti‘al : inflammation [sha‘ala] Hin ishtaal, Per eshte‘al borrowed from Ar

ishtihar : fame; announcement, advertisement [shahara] Hin ishtahar, Ind isytihar, Per eshtehar borrowed from Ar

ishtiqaq : etymology [shaqqa]

ishtira : purchase [shara]

ishtirak : participation [sharika] Aze istirak, Per eshterak, Tur istirak borrowed from Ar

ishtirakia : socialism [sharika]

iskaf : leatherworker [from Sum ashgab]

islam : Islam [salima] Aze islam, Ind islam, Per eslam, Swa islamu, Tat islam, Tur islam borrowed from Ar

ism : name [samma] Aze isim, Hin ism, Ind isim, Per esm, Tat isem, Tur isim borrowed from Ar

ismant : cement [from Lat caementum]

isnad : charge, incrimination [sanada] Aze isnad, Per esnad, Tur isnat borrowed from Ar

isqatt : shooting down [saqatta]

israf : extravagance, squandering [asrafa] Hin israf, Per esraf, Tat israf, Tur israf borrowed from Ar

issaba : injury [ssaba]

issal : invoice [wassala]

i‘ssar : whirlwind [?]

issba‘ : finger [Sem ss-b-‘, Mal saba‘, Akk nessbetu, Heb etzba‘, Syr tzeb‘a, JNA ssabo’ta, Hrs hhashba, Tig tshebet, Uga ussb‘, Ebl issbau]

issdar : publication [ssadara]

isslahh : reform [ssalahha] Hin israf, Per esslahh borrowed from Ar

issrar : insistence [assrara] Hin israr, Per essrar borrowed from Ar

isstada : hunt [ssada]

isstidam : collision [ssadama]

isstilahh : convention; term [ssalahha] Ful istilahu, Ind istilah, Per esstelahh borrowed from Ar

isstina‘ : art [ssana‘a]

ist : bottom, arse [Heb shet, Syr eshtha, Hrs shit, Phoen ’sht’t] Per est borrowed from Ar

istadana : get indebted [dana]

istafragha : abandon, break [faragha]

istaghalla : exploit [ghalla]

istaghna : get rich; renounce [ghania]

istahhlala : be impossible [hhala]

istahila : deserve [ahala] Swa stahili borrowed from Ar

istaiqadza : wake up [yaqidza]

istajara : rent out [ajara]

istama‘a : listen [sami‘a]

ista‘mala : use, handle [‘amila]

istansacha : copy [nasacha]

istanttaqa : make speak, interrogate [nattaqa]

istaqalla : be independent [qalla]

istarahha : get rest [rahha]

istarihh : rest, repose [rahha] Swa starehe borrowed from Ar

istarra : keep a secret [mastur]

istathmara : exploit [thamara]

istatta‘a : be able

istaula : possess [walia]

istaurada : import [warada]

istibdad : despotism [badda] Aze istebdad, Per estebdad, Tur istibdat borrowed from Ar

istichdam : use [chadama]

istida‘ : deposit [wada‘a]

istid‘a : entreaty [da‘a] Hin istadua, Per ested‘a borrowed from Ar

isti‘dad : readiness, ability, capacity, talent [‘adda] Aze istedad, Hin istedad, Per este‘dad borrowed from Ar

isti‘fa : resignation [‘afa] Aze istifa, Hin istifa, Per este‘fa, Tur istifa borrowed from Ar

istifada : use, benefit [fada] Aze istifade, Per estefade, Tur istifade borrowed from Ar

istifham : question [fahama] Ind istifaham, Per estefham borrowed from Ar

istifsar : query [fasara]

istighatha : seeking help [aghatha] Hin istaghasa, Per esteghase borrowed from Ar

istihhkam : fortification [ahhkama] Aze istehkam, Per estehhkam, Tur istihkam borrowed from Ar

istihhssal : product, result [hhassala] Aze istehsal, Per estehhssal, Tur istihsal borrowed from Ar

istihlak : consumption; amortization [halaka] Aze istehlak, Per estehlak, Tur istihlak borrowed from Ar

istihhsan : consent [hhasuna]

istihlak : consumption [halaka]

istihza : mockery [haza] Aze istehza, Per estehza, Tur istihza borrowed from Ar

isti‘jaba : be surprised, wonder [‘ajiba] Swa staajabu borrowed from Ar

istila : conquest [walia] Aze istila, Per estila, Tur istila borrowed from Ar

isti‘mal : use, handling [‘amila] Hin istimal, Ind istikmal, Per este‘mal, Tur istimal borrowed from Ar

isti‘mar : colonialism [‘amara] Per este‘mar borrowed from Ar

istimara : questionnaire [amara]

istinttaq : interrogation [nattaqa] Aze istintaq, Per estenttaq, Tur istintak borrowed from Ar

istiqama : uprightness; guidance [qama] Aze istiqamet, Per esteqamat, Tur istikamet borrowed from Ar

istiqbal : reception, welcome; encounter [qabila] Hin istaqbal, Per esteqbal borrowed from Ar

istiqlal : independence [qalla] Aze istiqlal, Per esteqlal, Taj istiqlal, Tur istiklal borrowed from Ar

istiqrar : confirmation [qarra] Per esteqrar borrowed from Ar

istirad : imports [warada]

istirahha : rest [rahha] Aze istirahet, Ind istirahat, Per estirahhat, Tur istirahat borrowed from Ar

istithmar : exploitation [thamara] Aze istismar, Per estethmar, Tur istismar borrowed from Ar

istithna : exception [thana] Aze istisna, Hin istisna, Per estethna, Tur istisna borrowed from Ar

istittla‘ : inquiry [ttala‘a]

istiwa : equality; equator [sawa] Ind istiwa, Per estewa borrowed from Ar

iswar : bracelet [siwar]

isza : illumination [sza]

iszafa : increase [Akk wassabu (add), Heb yassaf, Syr ussef, Uga usp (harvest), Phoen ysp] Hin izafa, Per eszafe borrowed from Ar

iszafa : increment [iszafa] Hin izafat, Per eszafat borrowed from Ar

iszahh : clarification [waszahha]

iszbara : file [szabara]

iszrab : strike [szaraba]

isztaraba : be unruly [szaraba]

isztarra : force, compel [szarra]

itachadha : seize [achadha]

i‘tada : be accustomed [‘ada]

i‘tada : be hostile, raid [‘ada]

i‘tana : care for [‘ana]

i‘tanaqa : embrace accept [‘anaqa]

i‘taqada : believe [‘aqada]

i‘tarafa : admit [‘arafa]

i‘tarasza : object to [‘arasza]

itasa‘a : extend [wasu‘a]

ithar : preference; honor, offering; gift [athara] Hin isar, Per ithar borrowed from Ar

ithm : guilt [Sem ’-th-m, Heb ashma, Uga ’thm]

Ithnain : Monday [thana] Ind Isnin borrowed from Ar

ithnani : two [thana]

i‘tibar : consideration [‘abbara] Aze etibar, Per e‘tebar, Tat igtibar, Tur itibar borrowed from Ar

i‘tidal : balance [‘adala]

i‘tidhar : apology [‘adhara]

itifaq : concord; agreement, treaty [wafiqa] Aze ittifaq, Hin ittafak, Per etefaq borrowed from Ar

itiham : accusation [wahama] Aze ittiham, Per eteham, Tur itham borrowed from Ar

itihhad : union [wahhada] Hin ittahad, Per etehhad borrowed from Ar

itijah : orientation [wajuha]

i‘tiqad : faith [‘aqada] Aze etiqad, Per e‘teqad, Tur itikat borrowed from Ar

i‘tiqal : arrest [‘aqala]

i‘tiraf : admission of sg [‘arafa] Aze etiraf, Per e‘teraf, Tur itiraf borrowed from Ar

i‘tirasz : objection [‘arasza] Aze etiraz, Hin etiraz, Per e‘terasz, Tur itiraz borrowed from Ar

i‘tissab : strike [ssaba]

itissaf : description [wassafa] Per etessaf borrowed from Ar

itissal : contact [wassala] Per etessal borrowed from Ar

itmam : completion [tamma] Hin itmam, Per etmam borrowed from Ar

itta‘a : obedience [tta‘a] Aze itaat, Per etta‘at, Tur itaat borrowed from Ar

ittar : frame [attara]

ittila‘ : information [ttala‘a] Hin ittala, Per ettela‘ borrowed from Ar

ittlaq : release [ttallaqa]

iwazz : goose [wazz]

iyala : province [?] Per eyalat, Tur eyalet borrowed from Ar

iza : before, against [?]

iz‘aj : disturbance [za‘aja]

izar : loincloth; underpants [azara] Hin izar, Per ezar borrowed from Ar

izmil : chisel [from Gre smile]

‘I

‘iatt : howl [Heb ‘aitt (eagle)]

‘ib : burden [Mal ghabba (load)]

‘ibada : worship, service, religion [‘abada] Aze ibadet, Ful ibada, Hau ibada, Hin ibadat, Ind ibadat, Per ‘ebadat, Swa ibada, Tur ibadet borrowed from Ar

‘ibara : expression; essay [‘abbara] Aze ibaret, Ind ibarat, Per ‘ebarat, Tur ibare borrowed from Ar

‘ibra : example; warning [‘abbara] Aze ibret, Hin ibrat, Per ‘ebrat, Tur ibret borrowed from Ar

‘ibrani : Hebrew [‘ibri] Hin ibrani, Per ‘ebrani borrowed from Ar

‘ibri : Hebrew [Heb ‘ivri]

‘id : festival [‘ada] Ful idi, Hau idi, Hin id, Ind id, Per ‘eid, Swa idi borrowed from Ar

‘idda : count; days of morning [‘adda] Ful edda, Per ‘edde, Swa eda, Tur eda borrowed from Ar

‘idzam : power [‘adzuma]

‘ifrit : demon [Mal ghafrid] Per ‘efrit borrowed from Ar

‘ijl : calf [Sem ‘-g-l, Mal ghogol, Heb ‘egel, Syr ‘egla, Tig egal, Uga ‘gl, Phoen ‘gl, Ebl ugilu] Per ‘ejl borrowed from Ar

‘ilaj : medical treatment; medicine [‘alaja] Hin ilaj, Per ‘elaj, Tur ilac borrowed from Ar

‘ilawa : addition [‘ala] Aze elave, Per ‘elawe borrowed from Ar

‘illa : ailment; fault [‘alla] Hin illat, Ind ilat, Per ‘ellat borrowed from Ar

‘ilm : knowledge, science [‘alima] Aze elm, Ful ilmu, Hau ilmi, Hin ilm, Ind ilmu, Kyr ilim, Per ‘elm, Swa elimu, Tur ilim borrowed from Ar

‘imad : pillars, supports [‘amada] Per ‘emad borrowed from Ar

‘imama : turban [‘amma]

‘imara : building [‘amara] Hin imarat, Per ‘emarat borrowed from Ar

‘imma : turban [‘amma]

‘inab : grapes [Mal ghenba, Akk inbu (fruit), Heb ‘enav (grape), Ara ‘nb’, Uga ghnab] Ful inabo, Hau inabi, Per ‘enab borrowed from Ar

‘inad : spite, obstinacy [‘anada] Alb inat, Aze inad, Ser inat, Per ‘enad, Tur inat borrowed from Ar

‘inaya : care; favor, kindness [‘ana] Hin inayat, Per ‘enayat, Tur inayet borrowed from Ar

‘ind : at, by [Mal ghand, Gur enta] Per ‘end borrowed from Ar

‘inqad : bunch of grapes [‘unqud] Per ‘enqad borrowed from Ar

‘iqd : necklace [‘aqada] Per ‘eqd borrowed from Ar

‘irq : root, vein [‘ariqa] Aze irq, Per ‘erq borrowed from Ar

‘irsa : weasel [?]

‘irsz : honor, dignity [?] Hau irili, Per ‘ersz borrowed from Ar

‘ishq : love, desire [‘ashiqa] Aze esq, Hin ishk, Ind isyk, Per ‘eshq, Swa ashiki, Tur ask borrowed from Ar

‘ishra : good company; pleasure [‘ashara] Hin ishrat, Per ‘eshrat borrowed from Ar

‘ishruna : twenty [‘ashara] Hau ashirin, Swa ishirini borrowed from Ar

‘issma : chastity [‘assama] Aze ismet, Per ‘esmat, Tur ismet borrowed from Ar

‘issyan : disobedience, rebellion [‘assa] Aze üsyan, Per ‘essyan borrowed from Ar

‘ittr : essence, perfume [‘attara] Hin itr borrowed from Ar

‘iwasz : replacement, substitution [‘asza] Aze evez, Per ‘ewasz borrowed from Ar

‘iyada : visit [‘ada]

‘iyal : family [‘ala] Ful iyalu, Hau iyali, Per ‘eyal borrowed from Ar

‘iyar : measure [?] Per ‘eyar borrowed from Ar

‘izza : might; honor, respect [‘azza] Ful izza, Hau izza, Hin izzat, Ind izzat, Per ‘ezzat, Tur izzet borrowed from Ar

J

ja : come [Mal gie, EgAr gi]

ja‘a : be hungry [Mal guh (hunger), Heb ga‘gu‘im (longing)]

ja‘ala : make, do, start [Syr ag‘el (commit)]

ja‘ba : box; quiver; barrel [?] Per ja‘be borrowed from Ar

jabal : mountain [Sem g-b-l, EgAr gabal, Heb gevul (frontier), Ara gbwl, Uga gbl, Phoen gbl] Ind jabal, Per jabal, Swa jabali borrowed from Ar

jaban : cowardly [jabuna] Per jaban borrowed from Ar

jabara : force [Sem g-b-r, Heb gever (man), gibbor (hero), Syr gabra (man), JNA gora, Amh gebbere (pay tax), Phoen gbr (man)]

jabas : melon [?]

jabba : gather [Sem g-b-b, Syr gaba, Uga gbb]

jabbana : coagulate, let milk get sour [Sem g-b-n, Mal gobon (cheese), Akk gubnatu, Heb gevina, Syr gbetha, JNA gubta]

jabbana : cemetery [?]

jabbar : mighty; giant [jabara] Hin jabbar, Ind jabar, Per jabbar, Tur cebbar borrowed from Ar

jabha : forehead [Akk gubbuchu (bald), Heb gabba (eyebrow), gibbeach (balding), Syr gbacha, Hrs yabheh (eyebrow), Tig gebbehit (forehead)] Per jabhe, Tur cephe borrowed from Ar

jabin : forehead [Mal gbin, EgAr gibna]

jabir : violent, despotic [jabara] Hin jabir, Per jaber borrowed from Ar

jabuna : be cowardly [?]

jabr : force, might; compulsion, oppression [jabara] Aze cebr, Hin jabr, Per jabr, Tur cebir, Uzb jabr borrowed from Ar

jabr : algebra [jabara] Ful aljibra, Per jabr, Tur cebir borrowed from Ar

jabran : forcibly, violently [jabara] Hin jabran, Per jabran borrowed from Ar

ja‘d : curl [ja‘uda] Per ja‘d borrowed from Ar

jada : be good, grant [Sem g-d-y]

jada‘a : cut off, mutilate [Sem g-d-‘, Heb gada‘, Syr geda, Tig gd‘ (beat)]

jadafa : row [Sem g-d-p, Syr gdafa (rowing)]

jadal : dispute [jadala] Per jadal borrowed from Ar

jadala : fight; argue, debate; cross-question [Sem g-d-l, Amh geddele (kill), Tig tegadele] Swa jadili borrowed from Ar

jadala : plait [Sem g-d-l, Akk gidlu (plaited string), Heb gadal (plait), Syr gedal (twist), JNA gdhl]

jadar : blisters; smallpox [Mal gidri] Per jadar borrowed from Ar

jadd : ancestor, grandfather [?] Hin jadd, Per jadd borrowed from Ar

jadd : fortune, luck [Mal gid, Syr gada, JNA gada, Amh gedd, Phoen gd]

jadda : be new [EgAr gidid (new), Mal gdid, Syr gdd (renew)]

jadda : be serious [Sem g-d-d]

jadda : street [?] Per jadde, Tur cadde borrowed from Ar

jaddada : renew, reform [jadda] Hau jaddada borrowed from Ar

jaddafa : abuse, revile [Sem g-d-p, Syr gadef]

jaddhab : attractive [jadhaba] Per jaddhab borrowed from Ar

jadha : shear [Sem g-d-d, Syr gad (cut off)]

jadha : young man [EgAr gada]

jadhaba : pull [Sem g-d-b]

jadhafa : row [jadafa]

jadhama : cut off [Sem g-d-m, Heb gadam, Syr gedam]

jadhara : uproot [Sem g-d-r, EgAr gidr (root), Ara gdr (uproot)]

jadhb : attraction; absorption [jadhaba] Aze cezb, Hin jazb, Per jazb borrowed from Ar

jadhba : emotion [jadhaba] Hin jazba, Per jadhbe borrowed from Ar

jadhib : attractive [jadhaba] Hin jazib, Per jadheb borrowed from Ar

jadhiba : attraction [jadhaba] Aze caziba, Per jadhebe, Tur cazibe borrowed from Ar

jadhm : amputation [jadhama] Per jadhm borrowed from Ar

jadhr : root [jadhara] Per jadhr borrowed from Ar

jadi : kid [Sem g-d-y, Mal gidi, Akk gadu, Heb gedi, JNA gidhya, Uga gdy, Phoen gd’] Per jady borrowed from Ar

jadid : new [jadda] Hin jadid borrowed from Ar

jadr : wall [jidar] Per jadr borrowed from Ar

jadura : be fit [?]

jadwa : usefulness, profit [ajjada]

jadwal : creek; list, schedule; ruler [?] Aze cedwel, Ful jadwalu, Hau jadawali, Per jadwal, Taj jadval, Tur cetvel borrowed from Ar

jafa : be rude [?]

jafa : rudeness; cruelty, torture [jafa] Aze cefa, Ful jafi, Hin jafa, Per jafa, Tur cefa borrowed from Ar

jafaf : drought [jaffa] Per jafaf borrowed from Ar

ja‘far : stream [?] Per ja‘far borrowed from Ar

jaffa : be dry [?]

jafn : eyelid [jabin] Per jafn borrowed from Ar

jafna : vine [Sem g-p-n, Akk gapnu (bush), gupnu (tree-trunk), Heb gefen (vine), Syr gefetha, Uga gpn]

jafr : magic [?] Per jafr borrowed from Ar

jahada : strive [?]

jahala : ignore [jahila]

jahala : ignorance [jahila] Aze cehalet, Hin jahalat, Per jahalat borrowed from Ar

jaham : clouds [?]

jahannam : hell [Heb gehinnom, Amh gehannem] Aze cehennem, Ful jahannama, Hau jahannama, Hin jahannum, Ind jahanam, Per jahannam, Swa jehanum, Tat dzhehennem, Tur cehennem borrowed from Ar

jahar : nyctalopia [Syr gehar (be dim)] Per jahar borrowed from Ar

jahara : make known [?]

jahaz : apparatus; dowry; ship [jahaza] Hin jahaz, jahez, Per jehaz borrowed from Ar

jahaza : prepare [?]

jahd : toil, effort; zeal [jahada] Aze cehd, Hin jahd, Ind jahad, Per jahd, Swa juhudi borrowed from Ar

jahhada : deny [?]

jahhafa : peel [Sem g-hh-p]

jahhd : denial [jahhada] Per jahhd borrowed from Ar

jahhim : hell [?]

jahid : zealous [jahada] Per jahed borrowed from Ar

jahil : illiterate, ignorant [jahila] Aze cahil, Ful jahili, Hau jahili, Hin jahil, Per jahel, Tur cahil, Uzb jokhil borrowed from Ar

jahila : be ignorant [?]

jahiz : prepared, ready [jahaza]

jahl : ignorance [jahila] Per jahl borrowed from Ar

jahr : publicity [jahara] Per jahr borrowed from Ar

jahran : publicly [jahara] Per jahran borrowed from Ar

jai‘ : hungry [ja‘a]

jaib : breast; pocket; sinus [jib] Per jeyb borrowed from Ar

jaid : good [jada] Per jayyed borrowed from Ar

jaish : army [jassha] Per jeysh, Swa jeshi borrowed from Ar

jaiz : allowable, permitted [jaza] Hin jayaz, Per jayez borrowed from Ar

jaiza : examination; award, acknowledgement [jaza] Hin jayza, Per jayeze borrowed from Ar

ja‘ja‘a : honk, make noise [Heb gi‘ge‘a]

ja‘l : remake; imitation, falsification [ja‘ala] Hin jal, Per ja‘l borrowed from Ar

jala : clean, polish, make clear [Sem g-l-y, Heb gilla (uncover), Syr gela, JNA gly, Phoen gly]

jala : remove [Sem g-l-y, Akk galu (be deported), Heb gala (go into exile), Ara gly (open), Uga gly]

jala : wander, go round [Sem g-w-l, g-l-l, Akk galalu (roll), Heb galgel, Syr ‘ala‘la (whirlwind), JNA gigla (spindle), Ara gwl (roll up), Uga glgl (roll)]

jala : clarity [jala] Per jala borrowed from Ar

jala : emigration [jala] Per jala borrowed from Ar

jalaba : catch; bring, fetch [Sem g-l-b]

jalacha : whet [?]

jalada : firmness [jaluda] Per jaladat borrowed from Ar

jalal : might, glory, pomp [jalla] Aze calal, Hin jalal, Per jalal borrowed from Ar

jalama : cut off, shave, shear [Sem g-l-m, Mal gelem (shears)]

jalasa : sit [Amh gelas (saddle cover)]

jalb : procurement [jalaba] Aze celb, Per jalb, Tur celp borrowed from Ar

jald : firm; fast [jaluda] Aze celd, Hin jald, Per jald borrowed from Ar

jali : apparent [jala] Per jali borrowed from Ar

jalid : ice [jalida] Per jalid borrowed from Ar

jalida : freeze [Sem g-l-d, Heb gelida (ice), Syr gelida]

jalihha : shave [Sem g-l-hh, Heb gilleach, Ara glch (cut hair; expose)]

jalil : mighty, majestic [jalla] Per jalil borrowed from Ar

jalis : partner [jalasa] Per jalis borrowed from Ar

jalla : wrap [Sem g-l-l (roll)]

jalla : be mighty [?]

jalla : clothes [jalla]

jallab : trader [jalaba] Per jallab borrowed from Ar

jallad : hangman [jallada] Alb xhelat, Aze cellad, Hin jallad, Per jallad, Ser dzelat, Tur cellat borrowed from Ar

jallada : bind in leather [Sem g-l-d, EgAr gild (skin), Mal gilda, JNA gilda, Hrs geled (skins), Tig geldet (animal skin)]

jalsa : session, meeting [jalasa] Hin jalsa, Per jalase, Tur celse borrowed from Ar

jaluda : be firm [?]

jalwa : shine, lustre [jala] Hin jalva, Per jelwe borrowed from Ar

jam : glass vessel, goblet [from Per]

jam‘ : gathering; plural [jama‘a] Ful jamu, Hau jami, Per jam‘, Tur cemi borrowed from Ar

jama‘a : gather [Mal gama‘, gimgha (week), Hrs gm‘ (collect), Hrs egtoma]

jama‘a : people, crowd; public, community, family; group, class [jama‘a] Aze camaat, Ful jamaa, Hau jamaa, Hin jamat, Per jama‘at, Swa jamaa, Tat dzhemegat, Tur cemaat borrowed from Ar

jamad : rigid body; rock; mineral [jamada] Per jamad borrowed from Ar

jamada : congeal, freeze [Sem g-m-d, Heb gammad (dwarf), Ara gmd (contract), Uga gmdh (stoop)]

jamal : camel [Sem g-m-l, EgAr gamal, Mal gemel, Akk gammalu, Heb gamal, Syr gamla, JNA gumla, Meh gemmol, Amh gemel, Tig gemel] Eng camel borrowed from Ar

jamal : beauty; courtesy [jamula] Aze camal, Hin jamal, Per jamal, Swa jamala borrowed from Ar

jamala : add, summarize [maybe from a common Sem root g-m (gather)]

jamasha : shave [Sem g-m-s]

jamhara : assemble [maybe from a common Sem root g-m (gather)]

jamhur : assembly, community [jamhara] Hin jamhur, Per jomhur borrowed from Ar

jamhuria : democracy, republic [jamhara] Hin jamhuriyat, Per jomhuriyat borrowed from Ar

jami‘ : mosque; totality [jama‘a] Alb xhami, Bul dzhamija, Hun dzsami, Gre tzami, Per jame‘, Rom geamie, Ser dzamija, Tur cami, Uzb jomeyi borrowed from Ar

jami‘ : comprehensive; collective [jama‘a] Hin jama borrowed from Ar

jami‘a : league, society, group, club, union, party [jama‘a] Aze cemiyyet, Hau jamiyya, Hin jamiyat, Per jame‘e, Swa jamii, Tat dzhemgiyat, Tur cemiyet borrowed from Ar

jami‘a : university [jama‘a] Hau jamia borrowed from Ar

jamid : rigid [jamada] Per jamed borrowed from Ar

jamil : nice [jamula] Per jamil borrowed from Ar

jamiz : fig [jummaiz] Per jamiz borrowed from Ar

jamm : abundant; a crowd [jamma] Per jamm borrowed from Ar

jamma : gather [Heb gam (also)]

jammal : camel driver [jamal]

jamr : ember [Mal gamar]

jamula : be beautiful [EgAr gamil (beautiful), Mal gmiel (beauty), Ara gml (show kindness)]

jamus : buffalo [from Per gavmish] Aze camis, Per jamus borrowed from Ar

jana : commit a crime [Ara gny (disgrace)]

janab : excellency [janaba] Hin janab, Per jenab borrowed from Ar

janaba : turn aside [Sem g-n-b, Mal genb, Heb ganav (steal), gav (back), Syr gabba, genab (side), ganab (steal), JNA gnw, Meh ganb (side), Jib ganb, Tig gebo, Phoen gnb (steal)]

janaba : impurity, uncleanliness [janaba] Ful janaba, Hau janaba borrowed from Ar

janahh : wing [Sem g-n-hh, Mal gewnah, Soq genahh (sternum)] Aze cinah, Per janahh borrowed from Ar

janaiz : bodies; burial [jannaza] Ful janaija, Hau janaiza, Per janayez borrowed from Ar

janan : interior [Akk gannu (part of inside of a sheep), Uga ggn (interior)]

janaza : body, corpse; bier; burial [jannaza] Hin janaza, Ind jenazah, Per jenaze, Tur cenaze, Ind jenazah borrowed from Ar

janb : side [janaba] Per janb borrowed from Ar

janba : side; aspect [janaba] Per janbe borrowed from Ar

jandara : a press [from Skt yantra]

janib : side [janaba] Hin janib, Per janeb borrowed from Ar

janin : embryo [janan] Ind janin, Per janin borrowed from Ar

janna : be mad [Mal gennen]

janna : cover, conceal [Sem g-n-n, Mal gnien (garden), Heb gan, ginna (garden), hegen (protect), Syr gena, JNA ginune (chamber), gintha (garden), Uga gn, Phoen mgn (shield)]

janna : garden, paradise [janna] Aze cennet, Ful aljanna, Hau aljanna, Hin jannat, Per jannat, Tur cennet, Uzb jannat borrowed from Ar

jannaza : speak at funeral [Sem g-n-z, EgAr ganaza (funeral)]

janub : south [janaba] Aze cenub, Hin janub, Per janub, Tur cenup borrowed from Ar

janzabil : ginger [zanjabil]

jar : neighbor [jawara] Per jar borrowed from Ar

jara : run [Mal gera, EgAr gara, Hrs gero, Gez (ta)agrata (hurry)]

jara : be unjust [Amh gera (left side), Tig gawere (be audacious)]

jara‘a : swallow [Sem g-r-‘]

jarab : an itch [jariba] Per jarab borrowed from Ar

jarad : bald; locust [jarada] Per jarad borrowed from Ar

jarada : peel; isolate [Sem g-r-d, Mal grad (locust), Akk garadu (pluck, tear), Heb gered, Ara grd (scrape)]

jarafa : sweep away [Sem g-r-p, Heb garaf (shovel), Syr geraf (cast with spade)]

jarahha : injure, wound [Syr garacha (surgeon)]

jarahha : wound; pus [jarahha] Per jarahhat, Tur cerahat borrowed from Ar

jaraim : crimes; sanctions [jarama] Hin jaraym, Per jarayem borrowed from Ar

jarama : commit a sin [Ara grm (establish)]

jaras : bell [jarasa] Per jaras borrowed from Ar

jarasa : emit a sound [?]

jarasha : scrape [Sem g-r-s, Syr gerash (be crushed), JNA grss (grind)]

jarayan : current, flow [jara] Aze cereyan, Per jarayan, Tur cereyan borrowed from Ar

jard : peeling [jarada] Per jard borrowed from Ar

jardal : bucket [?]

jarhh : injury, wound; provocation [jarahha] Hin jirah, Per jarhh, Swa jeraha borrowed from Ar

jari : running, progressing, current [jara] Hin jari, Per jari borrowed from Ar

jari : bold [jarua] Per jari borrowed from Ar

jarib : a measure [jarraba] Hin jarib, Per jarib borrowed from Ar

jariba : be itchy [Sem g-r-b, Akk garabu (mange, scab), Syr gerba (rash), JNA grwn (be a leper), Meh garb (mange, scab), Tig gerbeb]

jarida : tree-bark; newspaper [jarada] Hau jarida, Per jaride borrowed from Ar

jarihh : injured [jarahha] Per jarihh borrowed from Ar

jarima : crime; fine, penalty [jarama] Aze cerime, Per jarime borrowed from Ar

jarin : running, flowing [jara] Aze cari, Per jari borrowed from Ar

jarjara : drag [jarra]

jarr : pulling [jarra] Per jarr borrowed from Ar

jarra : pull [Sem g-r-r, Mal garr (transport), Heb garar (pull), Syr negar]

jarra : jar, pitcher [Mal garra, Akk garru (box)] Per jarre borrowed from Ar

jarraba : test, try, examine [maybe from a common Sem root g-r (scratch)] Ful jarriba, Hau jarraba, Swa jaribu borrowed from Ar

jarrahh : surgeon [jarahha] Aze cerrah, Hin jarrah, Per jarrah, Tur cerrah, Uzb jarrokh borrowed from Ar

jarrar : potter [jarra]

jarrara : scorpion [?] Per jarrare borrowed from Ar

jarthuma : germ [jurthuma]

jarua : dare, risk [Syr gara (incite)]

jarw : cub, pup [Mal geru, Heb gur, Hrs yeru]

jasad : dead body [?] Aze cesed, Per jasad, Tur ceset, Uzb jasad borrowed from Ar

jasama : volume [jasuma] Per jasamat, Tur cesamet borrowed from Ar

jasara : cross, pass [from Sum gish-ur (bridge)]

jasara : dare [?]

jasara : boldness [jasara] Per jasarat, Tur cesaret borrowed from Ar

jasha : excite [Syr gash (touch)]

jassa : feel out, spy out [Sem g-s-s, Heb gishesh, Syr gash]

jasha‘ : lust [jashi‘a]

jashi‘a : be lustful; long for [Gur gatshe (hunger)]

jassha : mobilize [Heb gaiss (troops), OSAr gys (troop), Amh gassha (shield), Tig gassha]

jassha : belch [Sem g-s-y, Heb gassass (expire), Ara gsy (belch), Hrs geso, Amh gesa, Tig gesa]

jasim : thick [jasuma] Per jasim borrowed from Ar

jasuma : be thick [Mal gisem (body), Heb geshem, Syr gushma, Meh gesem, Uga gshm (rain)]

jasur : bold, daring [jasara] Per jasur, Swa jasiri, Tur cesur borrowed from Ar

jasus : spy [jassa] Aze casus, Hin jasus, Per jasus, Swa jasisi, Tur casus, Uzb josus borrowed from Ar

ja‘uda : be curly [?]

jaudar : rye [from Per chavdar] Per joudar borrowed from Ar

jauf : a hollow [Sem g-w-p, Mal guf (womb), gifa (carcass), Heb guf (body), Ara gwp, Meh gawf (chest), Tig gof (body)] Per jouf borrowed from Ar

jauhar : essence; jewel [from Per gouhar] Aze cövher, Hin jauhar, Per jouhar, Swa johari, Tur cevher borrowed from Ar

jaula : a tour, a walk [jala]

jauq : troupe; choir [?]

jauqa : group [jauq] Per jouqe borrowed from Ar

jaur : injustice, violence, wrong-doing [jara] Hin jaur, Per jour borrowed from Ar

jaurab : stockings [jirab] Alb corape, Aze corab, Bul chorap, Per jorab, Rom ciorap, Ser carapa, Taj jurob, Tur corap borrowed from Ar

jausaq : villa [?]

jauw : atmosphere [Mal gewwa (within), Syr gaw, JNA go, Phoen gw] Per jaww borrowed from Ar

jauwal : going about, wandering [jala] Hin javal borrowed from Ar

jauz : pair [zauj]

jauz : walnut [from Per gouz] Per jouz, Tur ceviz borrowed from Ar

jauza : twin [zauj] Per jouza borrowed from Ar

jauzal : young dove [Ara gwzl]

jawab : reply [Sem g-w-b, Mal wiegieb, Syr ageb, Hrs yewab] Aze cavab, Ful jawabu, Hau jawabi, Hin javab, Kyr joop, Per jawab, Swa jawabu, Tat dzhavap, Tur cevap, Uzb javob borrowed from Ar

jawad : generous [jada] Per jawad borrowed from Ar

jawahir : jewels [jauhar] Aze cavahir, Alb xhevahir, Hin javahar, Per jawaher, Rom giuvaer, Tur cevahir borrowed from Ar

jawalan : wandering; rotation [jala] Per jawalan borrowed from Ar

jawar : neighborhood [jawara] Hin jabar, Per jawar borrowed from Ar

jawara : be neighbor [Sem g-w-r, Mal gar (neighbor), Akk geru (be hostile), Heb gar (dwell), ger (proselyte), Uga gr (stranger), Phoen gr (proselyte)]

jawaz : permit [jaza] Per jawaz, Tur cevaz borrowed from Ar

jaza : repay, retribute, punish [Sem g-z-y, Ara gzy]

jaza : go through, cross over, pass along; be possible [Sem g-w-z, Ara gwz]

jaza : divide [jaza‘a, jazza]

jaza : retribution, punishment [jaza] Aze ceza, Per jaza, Tur ceza borrowed from Ar

jaza‘ : trouble; impatience [jazi‘a] Per jaza‘ borrowed from Ar

jaza‘a : divide [Sem g-z-‘, Heb geza‘ (trunk)]

jazafa : act at random [Sem g-z-p, Ara gzp (without number)]

jazala : richness [jazula] Per jazalat borrowed from Ar

jazama : cut off; decide [Sem g-z-m, Syr gezam (threaten)]

jazar : carrot [from Per gazar]

jazara : kill, massacre [Sem g-z-r (cut off), JNA gzr, Amh gezzere (circumcise)]

jazara : sink, ebb [Mal gzira (island), JNA gzira]

jazi‘a : be troubled [?]

jazim : decisive [jazama] Per jazem borrowed from Ar

jazira : island [jazara] Per jazire borrowed from Ar

jazm : amputation [jazama] Per jazm borrowed from Ar

jazma : boots [from Tur cizme]

jazr : ebb [jazara] Per jazr borrowed from Ar

jazula : be big, rich [Ara gzl (snatch, rob)]

jazza : cut off [Sem g-z-z, Mal gezz (slice), Heb gazaz, Tig geza (acquire), Uga gzz (cut)]

jib : jeep [from Eng jeep]

jib : pocket [Sem g-b, Heb gav (back), JNA geba (side), Uga gb (back)] Alb xhep, Aze cib, Bul dzheb, Ful jiba, Hin jib, Hun zseb, Gre tsepi, Per jib, Ser dzep, Tur cep borrowed from Ar

jibs : gypsum [jiss]

jid : neck [Akk gidu (sinew), Akk gidu, Heb gid, Syr gada, Ara gida, giada, Jib zhid, Soq zhid, Uga gd] Per jid borrowed from Ar

jidal : struggle [jadala] Hau jidali, Per jedal borrowed from Ar

jidar : wall [Sem g-d-r, Heb gader (fence), Ara gdr (wall)] Per jidar borrowed from Ar

jidd : effort [jadda] Hin jad-, Per jedd borrowed from Ar

jiddan : earnest, serious [jadda] Per jeddan borrowed from Ar

jiddi : serious [jadda] Aze ciddi, Per jeddi, Tur ciddi borrowed from Ar

jidh‘ : trunk [jaza‘a]

jifa : carcass [jauf] Per jife borrowed from Ar

jiha : side, region [wajuha] Ful jiha, Hau jiha, Per jehat, Tur cihet borrowed from Ar

jihad : holy war [jahada] Ful jihadi, Hau jihadi, Hin jihad, Ind jahad, Per jehad borrowed from Ar

jihaz : equipment, device; ship [jahaza] Aze cihaz, Hin jihaz, Per jahaz, Swa jahazi, Tat dzhihaz, Tur cihaz borrowed from Ar

jil : tribe; generation, epoch [Heb gil (age)] Per jil borrowed from Ar

jild : skin, leather; book cover; volume [jallada] Aze cild, Hin jild, Per jeld, Swa jalidi, Tur cilt, Uzb jild]

jilf : rude [?] Per jelf borrowed from Ar

jilwa : revealing; shining; grace, charm [jala] Aze cilve, Per jelwe borrowed from Ar

jim : the letter j [Sem g-m-l, Heb gimel] Per jim borrowed from Ar

jima‘ : intercourse [jama‘a] Hau jimai, Per jema‘ borrowed from Ar

jinai : criminal [jana] Aze cani, Per jonai borrowed from Ar

jinas : pun [jins] Aze cinas, Per jenas, Tur cinas borrowed from Ar

jinaya : crime [jana] Aze cinayet, Per jenayat borrowed from Ar

jinaza : corpse; burial; bier [jannaza] Ind jenazah, Per jenaze, Swa jeneza, Tur cenaze borrowed from Ar

jinhh : side; wing [janahh] Per jenhh borrowed from Ar

jinn : genie; demon [from Lat genius] Aze cin, Hin jinn, Kyr jin, Per jenn, Swa jini, Tur cin borrowed from Ar

jinna : madness [janna] Per jennat borrowed from Ar

jins : kind; gender [from Gre genos] Aze cins, Ful jinsu, Hau jinsi, Hin jins, Per jens, Tat zhenes, Tur cins, Uzb jins]

jinsi : sexual [jins] Per jensi, Tat zhensi, Tur cinsi borrowed from Ar

jir : lime, chalk [from Sum gir]

jirab : bag [Sem g-r-b, Akk gurabu, Syr graba (jug)]

jiran : camel’s neck [Sem g-r-n, Heb garon (throat)]

jirjir : cress [Sem g-g-r, Akk egemgiru, Heb gargir, Syr gargira] Per jerjir borrowed from Ar

jirm : body [Sem g-r-m, Heb garam (cause), Syr gerama (body), JNA garma (bone), Uga grm] Per jerm borrowed from Ar

jirw : cub [jarw]

jism : body [jasuma] Aze cisim, Hin jism, Per jesm, Tur cisim, Uzb jism borrowed from Ar

jisman : body [jism] Per jesman borrowed from Ar

jisr : beam, bridge [jasara] Per jesr borrowed from Ar

jiss : gypsum [Mal gibs (chalk), Akk gassu (gypsum), JNA gassa]

jiwar : neighborhood [jawara] Aze civar, Per jawar borrowed from Ar

jizdan : purse [juzdan]

jizia : poll tax [jaza] Hin jizya, Per jezye borrowed from Ar

ju‘ : hunger [ja‘a] Per ju‘ borrowed from Ar

ju‘al : scarab [?] Per jo‘al borrowed from Ar

ju‘ala : reward [ja‘ala] Per jo‘ale borrowed from Ar

jubb : cistern [Sem g-b-b (be bent), Mal giebja, Akk gubbu, Heb gavav (vault), Ara gwb (cistern), Hrs gebyt, Tig gebb (moat)]

jubba : gown [Sem g-b-b (be bent), Tig gebbet (coat)] Ful jabba, Hau jabba, Per jobbe borrowed from Ar

jubn : cheese [jabbana] Swa jibini borrowed from Ar

jubn : cowardice [jabuna] Per jobn borrowed from Ar

juch : cloth [?]

juda : goodness; quality [jada] Per joudat borrowed from Ar

judar : blisters; smallpox [jadar]

judham : leprosy [Mal gdiem] Per jodham, Tur cüzam borrowed from Ar

judhmur : trunk [jaza‘a]

judjud : cricket [Tig gedged (a beetle)]

jughrafia : geography [from Gre geographia] Aze cografiya, Ful jagrufe, Per joghrafiya, Tur coghrafiya borrowed from Ar

juhhr : cave [Syr guchra]

julla : dung [Sem g-l-l, Ara gala, Tig gello]

julla : clothes [jalla]

julus : procession; coronation [jalasa] Hin julus, Per jolus borrowed from Ar

jum‘a : Friday; week [jama‘a] Aze cüme, Ful jumba, Hin juma, Ind jumat, Kyr juma, Mal zoma, Per jom‘e, Swa ijumaa, Tat dzhomga, Tur cuma borrowed from Ar

jumada : a Hijra month [?]

jumhuri : republic [jamhara] Per jomhuri, Swa jamhuri borrowed from Ar

jumhuria : republic [jamhara] Hau jamhuriya, Kyr jumuruyat, Per jomhuriyet, Tur cumhuriyet borrowed from Ar

jumjuma : skull [Soq gemgemoh (head)]

jumla : sum, total; sentence [jamala] Aze cümle, Hau jimla, Hin jumla, Per jomle, Swa jumla, Tat dzhömle, Tur cümle borrowed from Ar

jummaiz : sycamore [Mal gommajz]

jumud : rigidity [jamada] Per jomud borrowed from Ar

jun : color [from Per gun]

jun : bay [?]

junab : breast-bone [janaba] Per jonab borrowed from Ar

junahh : sin [from Per gonah] Per jonahh borrowed from Ar

jund : troop [from Per gund] Per jond borrowed from Ar

jundub : locust [Gez gundan (spider), Amh gundan (black ant)]

junhh : darkness; night watch [?] Per jonhh borrowed from Ar

junhha : crime [junahh] Per jonhhe borrowed from Ar

junna : defense [janna]

junun : madness [janna] Hin janun, Per jonun borrowed from Ar

jura : pit, hole [?]

jura : boldness [jarua] Aze cüret, Hin jurrat, Per jorat, Tur cüret borrowed from Ar

jurab : sock [jaurab] Per jurab borrowed from Ar

juradh : rat [LiAr jardaun, Mal gurdien, JNA grdh (scratch), Hrs gerdhin (rat)]

jurf : shore eroded by flood [Sem g-r-p, Ara grp (flood)]

jurhh : wound [jarahha]

jurm : offence [jarama] Hin jurm, Per jorm borrowed from Ar

jurn : threshing floor [Sem g-r-n, Heb goren, Uga grn]

jurthuma : root; germ [?] Per jorthume borrowed from Ar

jurw : cub [jarw]

jusha : a belch [jassha]

jusman : body [jism]

juthman : body [jism] Per jathman borrowed from Ar

juttha : dead body [Heb gush (block), Ara gt (cadaver)] Per jotthe borrowed from Ar

juz : part [jazza] Hin juz, Per joz, Tur cüz borrowed from Ar

juzdan : purse [?] Rom ghiozdan, Tur cüzdan borrowed from Ar

juzi : partial; slight [jazza] Aze cüzi, Per jozi borrowed from Ar

K

-ka : there [Heb kakh (thus), BAram dek (that), Gez zeku, Phoen k’]

ka‘b : cube [Amh kebbebe (enclose)] Per ka‘b borrowed from Ar

ka‘b : heel [?]

kaba : trouble, pain [Heb keev, Ara k’b] Per kabe borrowed from Ar

ka‘ba : cube [ka‘b] Hin kaba, Ind kaabah, Per ka‘be borrowed from Ar

kabab : roast on skewer [Sem k-b-b, Akk kababu (burn), Ara kbb (char), JNA kababa (kebab), Soq qebb (roast)] Aze kabab, Bul kebap, Hin kabab, Ind kebab, Per kabab, Ser cevap, Tur kebap, Uzb kabob borrowed from Ar

kabad : middle, center [kabd] Per kabad borrowed from Ar

kabada : suffer hard [Akk kabtu (heavy), Heb kaved, kavod (respect), Ara kbd (be heavy), Amh kebbed (heavy), Uga kbd (respect), Phoen kbd]

kabahha : restrain, brake [?]

kabar : caper [from Gre kapparis]

kabasa : press [Akk kabasu (tread), kibsu (gangway), Heb kibbess (wash), kavash (conquer), kevish (road), Syr kebash, JNA kbs, kwsh (go down), Uga kbs (wash), Phoen kbs]

kabata : throw down, debase [Sem k-b-t]

kabbut : hood [?]

kabd : liver [Sem k-b-d, Akk kabattu, Heb kaved, Syr kabda, JNA koda, Uga kbd] Per kabd borrowed from Ar

kabir : great [see kabura] Hin kabir, Per kabir borrowed from Ar

kabl : fetters [Sem k-b-l, Heb kevel (cable), Syr kabla (foot-chain)]

kabsh : wether [Sem k-b-s, Akk kabsu (lamb), Heb keves (sheep), Ara kbs (wether), Hrs kabs (lamb), Phoen kbsh (sheep)]

kabura : be great [Sem k-b-r, Mal kbir (great), Ara kbr (be much), Amh kebbere (be precious), keber (honor)]

kabus : ghost, nightmare [kabasa] Aze kabus, Per kabus, Tur kabus borrowed from Ar

kadar : melancholy [kadura] Aze keder, Per kadar borrowed from Ar

kadd : jug [Heb kad, Uga kd]

kadd : effort [kadda] Hin kad, Per kadd borrowed from Ar

kadda : strive [?]

kaddhaba : deny [kadhaba]

kadha : so [dha] Ful kaja, Hau kaza, Per kadha, Swa kadha borrowed from Ar

kadhaba : tell a lie [Sem k-dh-b, Mal gideb, Akk kazabu, Syr kadaba (liar)]

kadhalik : also [kadha] Per kadhalek borrowed from Ar

kadhb : lie, falsehood [kadhaba] Hau kazaf, Per kedhb borrowed from Ar

kadura : be turbid [Syr kedar (be wearied)]

kaf : the letter k [Sem k-p-p, Heb kaf]

kafa : suffice [Sem k-p-y, cp. Chadic kap (all)]

kafahha : fight [?]

kafan : shroud [kafana] Aze kefen, Hin kafan, Per kafan borrowed from Ar

kafana : wrap [Sem k-p-n, Mal kefen (shroud), Amh keffene (wrap up)]

kafara : be a non-believer [Sem k-p-r, Syr kefar (deny), JNA kpr] Swa kufuru borrowed from Ar

kafara : cover [Sem k-p-r]

kaff : palm of hand [Sem k-p-p, Akk kappu, Heb kaf, Syr kafa, JNA kaffa, Hrs kof, Uga kp] Per kaf borrowed from Ar

kaffara : repentance; sacrifice [kafara] Per kaffara, Swa kafara borrowed from Ar

kafin : sufficient [kafa] Aze kafi, Hin kafi, Per kafi borrowed from Ar

kafir : infidel, unbeliever [kafara] Hin kafir, Ind kafir, Per kafer, Swa kafiri borrowed from Ar

kafr : village [Sem k-p-r, Akk kapru, Heb kefar]

kafur : camphor [from Skt kapura] Hau kafur, Hin kafur, Per kafur borrowed from Ar

kahala : reach maturity [Sem k-h-l and y-k-l, Heb yakhol (can), Amh tshale]

kahin : priest, soothsayer [Sem k-h-n, Heb kohen, Syr kahana, Amh kahen, Uga khn, Phoen khn] Per kahen, Tur kahin borrowed from Ar

kahl : mature age [kahala] Per kahl borrowed from Ar

kahraba : amber; electricity [from Per kah-ruba]

kai : that [Sem k-y, Akk aki (yea), ki (as), Heb ke, Amh ka, Uga k, Phoen k]

kaif : status; mood [kayyafa] Alb qejf, Aze kef, Bul kef, Gre kefi, Per keyf, Tat keyef, Tur keyif borrowed from Ar

kaif : how [kayyafa] Per keyf borrowed from Ar

kaifia : quality [kayyafa] Aze keyfiyyet, Hin kaifiyat, Ind kaifiat, Per keyfiyat borrowed from Ar

kail : a measure [Heb keli (vessel), Syr kayla (a mesure)]

kaika : egg [from Middle Per]

kain : being [kana] Per kaen borrowed from Ar

kaina : beings; universe [kana] Hin kaynat, Per kaenat borrowed from Ar

ka‘k : cake [from Per kak]

kala : guard [Sem k-l-y, Akk kalu (hold back), Heb kele (jail), Syr kla, Uga kl’ (lock up)]

kala : measure [Sem k-w-l, k-y-l, Ara kwl]

kalak : raft [Akk kalakku, Syr klaka, JNA kalak] Per kalak borrowed from Ar

kalam : talk; word [kallama] Hin kalam, Per kalam borrowed from Ar

kalb : dog [Sem k-l-b, Mal kelb, Akk kalbu, Heb kelev, Syr kalba, JNA kalba, Hrs kelob (dogs), Tig kelb (dog), Uga klb, Phoen klb]

kalifa : please [?]

kalima : talk; word [kallama] Hau kalami, Hin kalma, Per kaleme, Taj kalima borrowed from Ar

kalla : no! [?]

kallafa : charge with a task [kalifa]

kallala : crown [Sem k-l-l, Akk kililu, Syr kalel, Amh aklil, kellele (surround; crown), Tig kella (go round)]

kallama : talk [?]

kam : how much [Sem k-m, Mal kemm, Heb kamma, Syr kema, JNA kma, Uga km (so, as), Phoen km]

kam : truffle [Akk kamtu, Heb kmeha]

kamah : blindness [Syr kmaha]

kamal : perfection [kamala] Hin kamal, Per kamal borrowed from Ar

kamala : be complete [Heb gamal (recompense), JNA kml (be complete)]

kamar : belt [from Per]

kamil : perfect [kamala] Aze kamil, Hau kamili, Hin kamil, Ind kamil, Per kamel, Swa kamili, Tur kamil borrowed from Ar

kammia : quantity [kam] Aze kemiyyet, Per kammiyat borrowed from Ar

kammun : cumin [from Sum gamun]

kamsha : handful [Sem k-m-s, Akk kamasu (gather)]

kana : be [Sem k-w-n, Mal kien, Amh hone, Uga kwn, Phoen kwm]

kana : call, give names; express oneself in allegories [Sem k-n-y, Heb kinnuy (appellation), Uga kny (allude)]

kanaba : sofa [from Fre canape]

kanaf : wing [Sem k-n-p, Akk kappu, Heb kanaf, Amh kenf, Syr kenfa, Tig kenf, Uga knp]

kanasa : sweep [Sem k-n-sh, Mal kines, JNA knsh (sweep)]

kanaza : store away [kanz]

kanisa : synagogue [Sem k-n-sh, Akk kanashu (gather), Heb kneset (assembly), Syr kanash (gather), JNA kinishta (synagogue), Phoen knsh (gather)] Per kanise, Swa kanisa borroweed from Ar

kanna : bride, daughter-in-law [Mal kenna]

kanun : oven; focus [Akk kinunu, JNA kanuna] Per kanun borrowed from Ar

kanun : December/January [kanun] Per kanun borrowed from Ar

kanz : treasure [from Per ganj] Per kanz borrowed from Ar

kar : work [from Per]

kara : dig [Sem k-r-w, k-r-y, Heb kara (mine), Ara kry (dig), Uga krw, kry]

karafs : celery [from Per] Bul kereviz, Tur kereviz borrowed from Ar

karaha : disgust [kariha] Hin karaha, Per karahat borrowed from Ar

karam : nobility, generosity [karuma] Hin karam, Per karam borrowed from Ar

karama : generosity; miracle [karuma] Hau karama, Hin karamat, Ind keramat, Per karamat, Swa karama borrowed from Ar

karatha : be anxious [?]

karaza : announce [from Gre keryx (herald)]

karh : disgust, detestation [kariha] Per karh, Swa karaha borrowed from Ar

karia : rent, hire [Mal kera, JNA kry]

kariha : be disgusted [Mal ikreh (ugly), Hrs keroh (hate)] Swa kirihi borrowed from Ar

karim : noble, generous, holy [karuma] Hau karimi, Hin karim, Per karim, Swa karimu borrowed from Ar

karkaddan : rhinoceros [from Per kargedan]

karm : vine [Sem k-r-m, Heb kerem (vineyard), Syr karma, JNA karma, Hrs kermaym (hill), Uga krm (vineyard)] Per karm borrowed from Ar

karra : return [?]

karram : wine-grower [karm]

karrara : repeat [karra] Swa kariri borrowed from Ar

karrath : leek [Mal kurrata, Akk karashu, Heb keresha, Syr karatha, JNA kirate]

karuma : be noble [Sem k-r-m] Swa kirimu borrowed from Ar

kas : cup [Mal kus, Akk kasu, Heb koss, Syr kasa, JNA kasiya, Uga ks] Per kas borrowed from Ar

kasa : clothe, cover [Sem k-s-y, Mal kesa, Heb kissa, Syr kase, JNA kusitha (hat), Uga ksw, ksy (dress up)]

kasaba : earn, acquire [?]

kasafa : be dark [?]

kasafa : getting dark [kasafa] Per kasafat borrowed from Ar

kasala : idleness; lethargy [kasila] Hau kasala, Per kasalat borrowed from Ar

kasara : break [Mal kisser, Amh kesere (go broke)]

kasb : business, occupation; workplace [kasaba] Per kasb, Taj kasb, Tat kesep, Tur kesp borrowed from Ar

kashafa : unveil; investigate [Sem k-s-p, Mal kixef]

kashf : investigation; discovery [kashafa] Aze kesf, Per kashf borrowed from Ar

kasila : be lazy [Heb nikhshal (fail)]

kasshaf : discoverer; very clear; headlight [kashafa] Hin kashaf, Per kasshaf borrowed from Ar

kasr : breach; want, deficit [kasara] Hin kasr, Per kasr borrowed from Ar

kataba : write [Sem k-t-b, Mal kiteb, Heb katav, Syr kethab, Uga ktb, Phoen ktb]

katan : linen [Mal kitien, Heb kutna (cotton), JNA kitana (cotton), Syr kethana (linen), JNA kittan, Uga ktn, Phoen ktn] Hin katan, Per katan, Swa kitani borrowed from Ar

kathara : exceed [Sem k-th-r, Akk kasharu (fit), Heb kasher (restore, have success), Syr kashira (happy), Uga kthr (health)]

kathib : dune [?]

kathif : dense [kathufa] Per kathif borrowed from Ar

kathir : many [kathara] Hin kasir, Per kathir borrowed from Ar

kathira : increase [kathara] Swa kithiri borrowed from Ar

kathra : quantity; excess [kathara] Hin kasrat, Per kathrat borrowed from Ar

kathufa : be dense [?]

kathuliki : catholic [from Gre katholikos]

katib : scribe, clerk, secretary [kataba] Aze katib, Hin katib, Ind katib, Per kateb, Swa katibu, Tur katip borrowed from Ar

kaukab : star [Sem k-b-k-b, Mal kewkba, Akk kakkabu, Heb kokhav, Syr kokba, JNA kukhwa, Hrs kebkib, Amh kokeb, Tig kokeb, Uga kkb, kbkb, Phoen kkb] Per koukab borrowed from Ar

kaun : being [kana] Per koun borrowed from Ar

kawa : iron (clothes) [?]

kawara : beehive; basket [Heb kavveret, Syr kawara] Per kaware borrowed from Ar

kawwana : create [kana]

kayyafa : adapt, match [?]

kian : being, existence [kana]

kibrit : sulphur; matches [Sem k-b-r-t, Mal kubrit, Akk kibritu, Heb gafrit, JNA kibrit] Aze kibrit, Bul kibrit, Per kebrit, Rom chibrit, Swa kiberiti, Tur kibrit borrowed from Ar

kifahh : battle [kafahha]

kifaya : sufficiency [kafa] Aze kifayet, Hin kifayat, Per kefayat borrowed from Ar

kila : both [Sem k-y-l, Akk kilalan, Heb kilaim (hybrid), Amh hulet (two), Uga klat (double)]

killa : veil [Syr keltha]

kilu : kilo [from Fre kilo]

kimia : chemistry [from Late Gre chemeia] Per kimiya borrowed from Ar

kinaya : allegory, hint [kana] Per kenaye, Tat kinaya, Tur kinaye borrowed from Ar

kir : bellows [?]

kira : rental, hire [karia] Alb qira, Ful akiri, Hin kiraya, Per keraye, Rom chirie, Ser kirija, Tur kira borrowed from Ar

kirbal : sieve [from Lat cribellum]

kirdan : necklace [Hrs qard (throat)]

kirsh : stomach [Sem k-r-s, Akk karshu, Heb kares (belly), Syr karsa (womb), JNA kasa, Hrs keres (belly), Gez kars, Tig kerset, Ebl karsu]

kisa : purse [Sem k-y-s, Akk kisu, Heb kiss (pocket), Syr kesa, JNA kis, Amh kis] Per kise borrowed from Ar

kisl : loin, sinew [Heb kesel, Uga ksl]

kiswa : covering; clothes, garment [kasa] Per keswat, Swa kisua borrowed from Ar

kitab : book [kataba] Aze kitab, Hin kitab, Kyr kitep, Per ketab, Taj kitob, Tat kitap, Tur kitap borrowed from Ar

kitaba : writing [kataba] Hin kitabat, Per ketabat borrowed from Ar

kitf : shoulder [Sem k-t-p, Heb katef, Syr kathfa, JNA kapa, Hrs kotf, Tig mektef, Uga ktp] Per ketf borrowed from Ar

ku‘ : elbow [Syr kua (joint)]

kub : cup [Syr kuba]

kubba : skein [?]

kuch : hut, shed [JNA kukhta]

kuchl : antimony [Sem k-ch-l, Mal ikhal, Akk guchlu, Heb kachol (blue), JNA kikhla (antimony)] Per kochl borrowed from Ar

kuds : heap [Heb godesh (overflow)]

kufia : head covering [?] Per kufiye, Swa kofia borrowed from Ar

kufr : lack of faith [kafara] Hin kufr, Per kofr borrowed from Ar

kulfa : task; difficulty, toil [kallafa] Per kolfat, Tur külfet borrowed from Ar

kulia : kidney [Sem k-l-y, Akk kalitu, Mal kilwa, Heb kilya, Syr koulatha, JNA kulitha, Hrs kelit, Amh kulalit, Tig kelaw, Uga klyt] Per kolye borrowed from Ar

kull : all [Sem k-l-l, Mal kollu, Akk kalu, Heb kol, JNA kulla, Sab kl, Amh hullu, Uga kl, Phoen kl] Ful kala, Hin kul, Per koll borrowed from Ar

kullab : hook, hinge [JNA kullaba] Hin kulaba, Per qollab, Swa kulabu borrowed from Ar

kulli : general, total [kull] Aze külli, Per kolli borrowed from Ar

kullia : entirety [kull] Per kolliye, Tur külliyet borrowed from Ar

kulun : pantyhose [from Fre collant]

kumait : reddish brown, bay [kull] Hin kumait, Per komeyt borrowed from Ar

kumm : sleeve [Akk kimkimmu (wrist), Tig kem (joint)]

kummathra : pear [?]

kumruk : customs [from Late Lat excommercium]

kumza : ball [qamaza]

kundur : frankincense [from Per]

kunia : nickname [kana] Per konyat borrowed from Ar

kur : saddle [Sem k-w-r, Heb kar (pillow)]

kura : furnace [from Sum gir] Per kure borrowed from Ar

kura : land [Syr koura] Per kure

kura : ball [?] Per kore, Tur küre borrowed from Ar

kura‘ : leg [Sem k-r-‘, Akk kuritu (shin), Heb kera‘ (leg), Ara kr‘, Uga kr‘ (lower thigh)]

kurasa : copy-book, leaflet [?] Per korase borrowed from Ar

kurki : crane [from Sum kurku]

kurkum : saffron [from Skt kunkuma]

kurrath : leek [karrath]

kursi : throne; chair, seat, cathedra [from Sum guza] Hin kursi, Per korsi, Taj kursi, Tur kürsü borrowed from Ar

kurunb : cabbage [from Gre krambe]

kurzan : axe [Sem k-r-z-n, Heb garzen, Syr chatzeyna]

kurzum : axe [Heb qardom]

kus : vulva [Gez kwehhs]

kusb : remnants, dregs [Akk kuspu, JNA kuspa]

kusbara : coriander [from Skt kustumbaru]

kushk : kiosk [from Per]

kushuf : list [kashafa]

kusuf : getting dark; eclipse [kasafa] Per kosuf borrowed from Ar

kutab : school [kataba] Per kotab borrowed from Ar

kutla : lump [Heb qotel (bacon)]

kutub : books [kataba] Per kotob, Tur kütüp borrowed from Ar

L

la : no [Sem l-’, Mal le, Akk la, Heb lo, Syr la, JNA la, BAram la, Hrs la, Uga l] Hin la, Ind la, Per la, Swa la borrowed from Ar

la‘aba : dribble [Mal liegheb, lghab (spittle)]

la‘alla : maybe [‘alla]

laama : agree, fit, suit [Sem l-’-m, Syr lama, Sab l’m (peace), Tig leame (be attached)]

la‘ana : curse [?]

la‘b : play [la‘iba] Per la‘b borrowed from Ar

labada : stitch together [Sem l-b-d, Heb leved (felt)]

labaka : mix [Sem l-b-k, Syr lebak (take hold)]

laban : milk; yoghurt [Sem l-b-n, Heb lavan (white), Meh lbon] Per laban borrowed from Ar

labba : accept [?]

labba : upper part of chest [Akk labianu (neck), Tig lebbet (side), Meh melabb, Jib leb]

labbana : make bricks [Sem l-b-n, Akk labanu (spread), Heb levena (brick), Syr lebetha, JNA lubna, lubintha, Uga lbn (make bricks)]

labin : brick [labbana]

labisa : dress up [Sem l-b-sh, Mal libes, Akk labashu, Heb hilbish, Syr lebesh, JNA lwsh, Amh lebbese, lebs (garment), Uga lbsh]

labwa : lioness [Akk labu (lion), Heb levia (lioness), lavia (lion), Uga lbu]

lacchassa : shorten; summerize [?]

lada : at [?] Per lada borrowed from Ar

laddha : be enjoyable [?]

ladhidh : tasty [laddha] Hin laziz, Per ladhidh borrowed from Ar

lafa : eat, chew [Sem l-w-p]

lafadza : emit; spit out [lafidza]

lafata : turn; pay attention [?]

lafdz : word, expression [lafidza] Hin lafz, Ind lafaz, Per lafdz borrowed from Ar

laffa : wrap [?]

lafidza : emit; pronounce [?]

lafif : wrapped [laffa] Per lafif borrowed from Ar

lafita : shield, advertisement [lafata]

lagha : speak [Sem l-gh-w, Akk lu‘u (throat), Heb lo‘a]

lagha : be invalid, void [?]

lagham : a mine [from Ita laguna] Aze lagim, Per lagham, Tur lagim borrowed from Ar

laghaza : speak in riddles [Syr le‘z]

laghw : abolition [lagha] Aze legv, Per laghw borrowed from Ar

laha : be amused; play [Sem l-h-w, Gez laha]

laha : uvula [?]

lahb : flame [lahiba] Per lahb borrowed from Ar

lahha : appear [?]

lahhada : bury, dig [?]

lahhada : deviate [?]

lahhadza : look, glance; note [?]

lahhafa : cover [?]

lahham : butcher [lahhm] Per lahham borrowed from Ar

lahhama : solder [Sem l-hh-m, Heb lacham]

lahhana : intone [Mal lehen (voice), Heb lachan (tune)]

lahhasa : devour [Sem l-hh-s, Amh lase (lick), melas (tongue), Tig lehhasa (lick)]

lahhdza : a glance, a moment [lahhadza] Aze lehze, Hin lahza, Per lahhdze, Tur lahze borrowed from Ar

lahhi : jaw [Sem l-hh-y, Mal lehja (beard), ilhit (chin), Akk lachu (jaw), letu (cheek), Heb lechi (cheek), Hrs melehhaw (side of jaw), Tig lehhe (jaw), Uga lhh (cheek)]

lahhima : devour [Sem l-hh-m]

lahhiqa : join; follow, reach [Mal lahaq]

lahhisa : lick up [lahhasa]

lahhm : meat [Sem l-hh-m, Heb lechem (bread), Syr lachma, JNA lakhma, BAram lacham (feast), Uga lhhm (bread), Phoen lchm]

lahhn : voice [lahhana] Per lahhn borrowed from Ar

lahiba : flame [Sem l-h-b, Heb lehava, shalhevet, hilhiv (kindle), Syr shalhabitha, JNA lahibe (flame)]

lahima : get inspiration [?]

lahima : swallow [l-h-m, Akk lemu (eat), Uga lhhm]

lahja : tip of the tongue; accent; dialect [JNA lhg (eat voraciously] Aze lehce, Hin lahja, Per lahje, Tur lehce borrowed from Ar

la‘iba : play [Mal laghab, Heb la‘av (mock)]

laihha : list; project [lahha] Aze layiha, Per laehhe, Tur layiha borrowed from Ar

lail : night [Sem l-y-l Mal lejl, Akk lilu, Heb laila, Syr lelaya, JNA lele, Amh lelit, Tig lali, Uga ll, Phoen ll] Per leyl borrowed from Ar

laila : night [lail] Ind lailah, lailat, Per leyle borrowed from Ar

laimun : lemon [from Skt nimbu]

lain : soft, smooth [lana] Per layyen, Swa laini borrowed from Ar

laiq : suitable, worthy, meritous [laqa] Aze layiq, Hin layak, Per layiq, Tat laek, Tur layik borrowed from Ar

la‘iqa : lick [LiAr mal‘a (spoon), Akk leku (lick), Uga lhhk]

laisa : is not [la + *isa; Heb yesh (there is), JNA ith, Uga ith]

laith : lion [Akk neshu, Heb laish] Per leyth borrowed from Ar

laja : take refuge [?]

lajam : bridle [lajjama] Hin lagam, Ind lagam borrowed from Ar

laji : refugee [laja]

lajja : noise [Heb ligleg (sneer)]

lajjama : bridle, rein in [Sem l-g-m, Mal liggem (curb), Syr lgama (rein), Amh legwam]

lajlaja : stammer [Sem l-g-l-g, Uga ‘lg]

lajna : committee [?]

laka : send [Sem l-’-k, Akk malaku (messenger), JNA malakh, Amh lake, Uga l’k, mlak (messenger), Phoen ml’k]

lakama : fight, box [?]

lakan : trough [?]

lakin : but [la] Aze lakin, Hin lekin, Per laken, Swa lakini, Tat lakin, Tur lakin borrowed from Ar

lakina : stutter [?]

la‘l : ruby [from Per la-la (bright)] Per la‘l borrowed from Ar

lam : the letter l [Sem l-m-d, Heb lamed] Hin lam, Per lam borrowed from Ar

lam : not [la]

lama : gather [Sem l-m, Akk lim (thousand), Heb leom (nation), Uga lim (people)]

lama : reproach, blame [Mal liem] Swa laumu borrowed from Ar

lama : not [la]

lama‘a : glitter, shine [?]

lamahha : see, glance [Mal lemah]

lamhha : a glance, a moment [lamahha] Hin lamha, Per lamhhe borrowed from Ar

lamma : collect [lama]

lamma : as [ila]

lamma : not, not yet [la]

lan : not [la]

lana : be soft [?]

la‘na : curse [la‘ana] Aze lenet, Hau laana, Hin lanat, Ind laknat, Per la‘nat, Swa laana, Tur lanet borrowed from Ar

laqa : be suitable [?]

laqab : nickname [laqqaba] Aze leqeb, Hau lakabi, Per laqab borrowed from Ar

laqatta : collect [Akk laqatu, Heb yalqutt (bag), JNA lqtt (glean). EthSem l-q-t]

laqia : hit, meet [?]

laqifa : seize [Sem l-q-p]

laqlaq : stork [laqlaqa] Aze leylek, Hin laklak, Per laqlaq, Tur leylek borrowed from Ar

laqlaqa : shake, rattle [Sem l-q-l-q, Akk laqlaqqu (stork), JNA lqlq (rattle), Ebl laqlaqu (stork)]

laqqaba : give a name [?]

laqqahha : fecundate [Sem l-q-hh, Akk lequ, laqa’u, laqachu (take), Heb laqach, Uga lqhh, Phoen lqhh]

laqwa : (facial) paralysis [?] Hin lakva, Per laqwe borrowed from Ar

latha : make dirty, make (water) turbid [Sem l-w-th, Heb lash (knead), Syr laysha (dough), JNA lysh (knead)]

lattafa : caress [Sem l-tt-p, Heb littef, Amh lettefe (knead), Uga lthfn (clever)]

lattafa : tenderness, charm, elegance [lattafa] Aze letafet, Per lattafat borrowed from Ar

lattasha : hit [Sem l-tt-sh, Syr lettash (sharpen), Uga lttsh (sharpened)]

lattif : fine, kind [lattafa] Aze letif, Hin latif, Ind latif, Per lattif, Tur latif borrowed from Ar

lattifa : joke, humor, anecdote [lattafa] Aze letife, Hin latifa, Per lattife, Tur latife borrowed from Ar

lau : if [Akk lu (either), Heb lu (if only), Syr elaw (when), Phoen ’l (if)]

lauhh : table [Sem l-w-hh, Mal luh, Akk le‘u, Heb luach, Uga lhh] Aze lövhe, Ful alluha, Ind loh, Per louhh borrowed from Ar

lauhha : board, tablet [lauhh] Per louhha, Tur levha borrowed from Ar

laulab : screw, spring [Sem l-b-l-b, Heb lulav]

lauma : blame [lama] Swa lawama borrowed from Ar

laun : color [lauwana] Hau launi, Per loun borrowed from Ar

lauwahha : give sign [lahha]

lauwana : color [Mal lewn (a color)]

lauz : almonds [Sem l-w-z, Mal lewza, Amh lewz] Ful lauja, Per louz, Swa lozi borrowed from Ar

lawa : toil [Syr leutha, Ara l’y (make efforts, labor)]

lawazima : necessities, utilities [lazima] Aze levazimat, Per lawazemat borrowed from Ar

lazim : necessary [lazima] Aze lazim, Hin lazim, Per lazem, Swa lazima, Taj lozim, Tur lazim borrowed from Ar

lazima : be necessary [?]

laziqa : stick together [?]

li : to [ila]

lian : so that [ila]

lianna : as, because [ila]

liaqa : suitability, worthiness; merit, service [laqa] Aze leyaqet, Hin liyaqat, Per liyaqat, Tur liyakat borrowed from Ar

libas : dress [labisa] Aze libas, Per lebas, Tur liban borrowed from Ar

libd : felt [labada]

libn : brick [labbana]

libs : clothing, dress [labisa] Kyr labbas borrowed from Ar

liddha : joy, pleasure; flavor, taste [laddha] Aze lezzet, Ind lezat, Per ledhat, Swa ladha, Tur lezzet borrowed from Ar

lidhalika : therefore [ila + dha]

lifafa : wrap, cover [laffa] Hin lifafa, Per lefafe borrowed from Ar

lift : turnip [Mal lift, Akk laptu, Heb lefet, Syr laftha]

lihhadz : regard, point of view [lahhadza] Hin lihaz, Per lehhadz borrowed from Ar

lihhaf : bed-sheet, cover, quilt [lahhafa] Hin lihaf borrowed from Ar

lihhia : beard [lahhi] Per lehhye borrowed from Ar

lijam : bridle [lajjama] Per lejam, legam borrowed from Ar

lika : so that [ila]

lim : peace [laama]

lima : why [ila + ma]

limadha : why [ila + ma + dha]

liman : harbor [from Gre limen]

liman : for whom [ila + man]

liqa : encounter [laqia]

lisan : tongue [Sem l-s-n, Mal lsien, Akk lishanu, Heb lashon, Syr leshna, JNA lishana, Meh ewshen, Hrs leshen, Tig lesan, Uga lshn, Ebl lishanu] Ind lisan, Per lesan, Tur lisan borrowed from Ar

liss : robber [from Gre lestes]

littha : gums [Akk lash’hhu] Per letthe borrowed from Ar

liwa : bend [Sem l-w-y, Mal liwja (curve), Hrs lewo (turn), Uga lwy (encircle)]

lu‘ab : spittle [la‘aba] Per lo‘ab borrowed from Ar

lu‘ba : toy [la‘iba]

lubab : essence [lubb] Hin labab, Per lobab borrowed from Ar

luban : olibanum [lubna] Ful luban, Hau luban, Per loban, Swa ubani borrowed from Ar

lubb : core [Sem l-b-b, Akk libbu (heart), Heb lev, Syr leba, JNA libba, Hrs hhelbeb, Amh leb, Tig lebb, Uga lb, Phoen lb, Ebl libbu]

lubbada : felt saddle cover; mantle [labada] Hin labada, Per labbade borrowed from Ar

lubda : felt [labada]

lubia : beans [Syr lubya] Per lubiya borrowed from Ar

lubna : storax [Sem l-b-n]

lugha : language, dialect [lagha] Aze lüget, Ful lunga, Hau lugga, Hin lugat, Ind loghat, Kyr lugat, Per loghat, Swa lugha, Taj lughat, Tur lugat borrowed from Ar

lughm : a mine [lagham] Per loghm borrowed from Ar

lughz : riddle [laghaza] Per loghz borrowed from Ar

lukanda : pub [from Ita locanda]

lulu : pearl [Amh lul] Hau luuluu, Per lolo borrowed from Ar

luqma : a bit [Mal loqma, JNA luqma] Hin lukma, Per loqme, Tur lokma borrowed from Ar

luttf : elegance, grace; friendliness [lattafa] Hin lutf, Per lottf, Tur lutuf borrowed from Ar

luzum : necessity [lazima] Aze lüzum, Per lozum, Tur lüzum borrowed from Ar

M

ma : what [Sem m-y, Heb ma, Syr ma, JNA ma, Tig mi] Per ma borrowed from Ar

ma : not [Mal ma, Soq be (without), Gur bay (no)] Per ma borrowed from Ar

ma : water [Sem m-w, Mal ilma, Akk mu, Heb maim, Syr maya, JNA maye, Ara my’, Meh hhemo, Hrs hhemyoh] Ind maa, Per ma borrowed from Ar

ma‘a : intestine [Sem m-‘-y, Akk amutu (liver), Heb me‘aim (guts), JNA me’ya, Hrs me’yin, Tig me‘o, Uga mm‘] Per ma‘a borrowed from Ar

ma‘a : together with [Mal ma‘] Hin may, Per ma‘a borrowed from Ar

ma‘a : flow [?]

ma‘ad : return; future [‘ada] Ind maad, Per ma‘ad borrowed from Ar

maada : grow [Akk madu (much), Heb meod (very), Uga m’d (be much)]

ma‘aka : rub [Sem m-‘-k, Heb ma‘akh (crush)]

ma‘amal : laboratory [‘amila] Ind maamal borrowed from Ar

ma‘arif : education; enlightening [‘arafa] Aze maarif, Per ma‘aref borrowed from Ar

ma‘ash : making a living; pension [‘asha] Aze maas, Per ma‘ash, Tur maas borrowed from Ar

ma‘bad : temple [‘abada] Aze mebed, Per ma‘bad, Tur mabet borrowed from Ar

ma‘bar : ford [‘abara] Per ma‘bar borrowed from Ar

mabda : beginning [bada] Per mabda, Tur mebde borrowed from Ar

mabit : accommodation [bata] Per mabit borrowed from Ar

mablagh : sum [balagha] Aze mebleg, Per mablagh, Tur meblag borrowed from Ar

mabnan : building [bana] Per mabna borrowed from Ar

mabsutt : happy [basatta] Per mabsutt borrowed from Ar

mab‘uth : delegate [ba‘atha] Per mab‘uth borrowed from Ar

machasza : churn [Sem m-ch-sz, Akk machassu (smite), Heb machatz (smash), Uga mchss]

machisza : suffer labor pains [Sem m-ch-sz, Gez machasza, Tig mehhasse]

machluq : created [chalaqa] Hin makhluk, Ind makhluk, Per machluq borrowed from Ar

machmal : velvet [chamala] Aze mexmar, Hin makhmal, Per machmal borrowed from Ar

machmassa : distress [chamassa] Hin makhmasa, Per machmasse borrowed from Ar

machmur : intoxicated [chamara] Hin makhmur, Per machmur borrowed from Ar

machraj : exit; denominator [charaja] Aze mexrac, Per machraj borrowed from Ar

machrutt : cone [charatta] Per machrutt borrowed from Ar

machrutti : cone-shaped [charatta] Hin makhruti, Per machrutti borrowed from Ar

machssuss : specific, special [chassa] Aze mexsus, Hin makhsus, Per machssuss, Tat makhsus borrowed from Ar

machzan : store [chazana] Hin makhzan, Per machzan, Tur mahzen borrowed from Ar

ma‘da : stomach [?] Aze mede, Per me‘de borrowed from Ar

madaba : feast, banquet [adaba] Per madabe borrowed from Ar

madad : help [madda] Hin madad, Per madad, Tur medet borrowed from Ar

madahha : praise [?]

madam : while [dama] Per madam, Swa maadamu borrowed from Ar

madan : space [?]

ma‘dan : mine; mineral, metal [ma‘din] Per ma‘dan borrowed from Ar

madani : civil; civilized [dana] Aze medeni, Per madani, Tur medeni borrowed from Ar

madania : urbanity, civilization [dana] Per madaniyat, Tat medeniyat, Tur medeniyet borrowed from Ar

madar : soil, clod [Sem m-d-r, Syr medra, Amh meder (earth)]

madar : turning, circle, orbit [dara] Per madar, Tur medar borrowed from Ar

madchal : entrance [dachala] Per madchal, Tur medhal borrowed from Ar

madda : spread, extend; support; help [Sem m-d-d, Tig medda]

madd : expansion; flood [madda] Per madd borrowed from Ar

madda : material, subject; article; matter, pus [madda] Aze madde, Hin madda, Per madde, Tur madde borrowed from Ar

maddada : excrete pus [madda]

maddada : extend [madda]

maddana : found cities [dana]

maddi : materialistic [madda] Aze maddi, Per maddi, Tur maddi borrowed from Ar

madfan : tomb [dafana] Per madfan borrowed from Ar

madha : what [ma + dha]

madhaq : taste [dhaqa] Hin mazak, Per madhaq borrowed from Ar

madhbahh : altar [dhabahha] Hin mazbah, Per madhbahh, Swa madhabahu borrowed from Ar

madhbahh : slaughterhouse [dhabahha] Per madhbahh, Tur mezbaha borrowed from Ar

madh’hab : doctrine; religion, denomination [dhahaba] Per madhhab, Swa madhehebu borrowed from Ar

madhira : be rotten (egg) [Heb mamzer (bastard)]

madhkur : mentioned [dhakara] Hin mazkur, Ind mazkur, Per madhkur, Tur mezkur borrowed from Ar

ma‘dhur : excused [‘adhara] Hin mazur, Per ma‘dhur borrowed from Ar

mad’hush : numbed, intoxicated [dahasha] Hin mad’hosh, Per mad’hush borrowed from Ar

madia : knife [?]

ma‘din : mineral, metal [Sem m-‘-d-n, Amh ma‘edan] Swa madini, Tur maden borrowed from Ar

madina : town [dana] Ind madinat, Per madine borrowed from Ar

madrasa : school [darasa] Hin madrasa, Ind madrasah, Per madrase, Tur medrese borrowed from Ar

madzanna : thought, opinion [dzanna] Per madzanne borrowed from Ar

madzhab : way, manner; religion [dzahaba] Hin mazhab borrowed from Ar

madzhar : manifestation [dzahara] Per madzhar borrowed from Ar

madzlum : oppressed [dzalama] Hin mazlum, Per madzlum borrowed from Ar

madznun : thought, suspected [dzanna] Per madznun borrowed from Ar

mafhum : understanding [fahama] Aze mefhum, Ind mafhum, Per mafhum borrowed from Ar

mafraq : top of head; crossing [faraqa] Per mafraq borrowed from Ar

mafssil : joint [fassala] Per mafssel borrowed from Ar

maftuhh : open [fatahha] Per maftuhh borrowed from Ar

maftun : enthusiastic; charmed [fatana] Aze meftun, Per maftun borrowed from Ar

maghara : cave [ghara] Aze magara, Per maghare, Tur magara borrowed from Ar

maghlub : defeated [ghalaba] Aze meglub, Ind maghlub, Per maghlub borrowed from Ar

maghmum : sad [ghama] Per maghmum borrowed from Ar

maghnattis : magnet [mighnattis] Per maghnattis borrowed from Ar

maghrib : west, sunset [ghariba] Hau magariba, Hin magrib, Ind maghrib, Per maghreb, Swa magharibi borrowed from Ar

maghrur : deceived; conceited; proud [gharra] Hin magrur, Per maghrur borrowed from Ar

maghsal : laundry; washing site [ghasala] Per maghsal borrowed from Ar

maghss : cramps, stomach trouble [Syr masa] Per maghss borrowed from Ar

mahada : make flat, smoothen [?]

mahala : be slow [?]

mahana : serve [?]

mahara : be clever, skilled [Sem m-h-r, Heb mahir (fast), Syr maher (instruct), Amh temare (learn), temhert (lesson)]

mahara : skill, mastery [mahara] Aze meharet, Per maharat, Tur meharet borrowed from Ar

mahd : bed, cradle [mahada] Per mahd borrowed from Ar

mahdi : leader [hada] Ind mahdi, Per mahdi borrowed from Ar

mahha : erase [Sem m-hh-y, Heb macha (strike), Syr mecha, JNA mkhy, Uga mhhy, Phoen mhhy]

mahhabba : love, liking [hhabba] Aze mehabbet, Ful muhibba, Hin muhabbat, Kyr makhawat, Per mahhabbat, Tat mekhebbet, Tur muhabbet borrowed from Ar

mahhall : place; store; palace [hhalla] Hau muhalli, Hin mahl, Per mahhall, Swa mahali borrowed from Ar

mahhalla : quarter, section of towm, neighborhood [hhalla] Gre mahalas, Hin muhalla, Per mahhalle, Rom mahala, Tat mekhelle, Tur mahalle borrowed from Ar

mahhana : try, examine [?]

mahhaqa : erase [Sem m-hh-q, Heb machaq]

mahhassil : revenues [hhassala] Hin mahasil borrowed from Ar

mahhasza : be pure, honest [?]

mahhatt : stop, station [hhatta] Per mahhatt borrowed from Ar

mahhbub : loved, beloved, popular [hhabba] Hin mahbub, Ind mahbub, Per mahhbub borrowed from Ar

mahhbus : arrested [hhabasa] Aze mehbus, Per mahhbus, Swa mahabusi, Tur mahbus borrowed from Ar

mahhdud : limited [hhadda] Aze mehdud, Hin mahdud, Per mahhdud, Tur mahdut borrowed from Ar

mahhdzudz : happy [hhadza] Per mahhdzudz borrowed from Ar

mahhfadza : box; wallet; stock exchange [hhafadza] Per mahhfadze borrowed from Ar

mahhfil : circle, assembly [hhafala] Hin mahfil, Per mahhfel borrowed from Ar

mahhfudz : guarded, protected [hhafidza] Hin mahfuz, Per mahhfudz borrowed from Ar

mahhjuz : reserved [hhajaza]

mahhkama : court; administrative department [hhakama] Aze mehkeme, Hin mahakma, Ind mahkama, Per mahkame, Tur mahkeme borrowed from Ar

mahhkum : governed, subject; convicted [hhakama] Aze mehkum, Hin mahkum, Per mahkum, Tur mahkum borrowed from Ar

mahhram : close relative [hharuma] Hin mahram, Per mahhram borrowed from Ar

mahhrama : handkerchief [hharuma]

mahhrum : bereaved, robbed, deprived [hharama] Aze mehrum, Hin mahrum, Per mahhrum, Tat mekhrum, Tur mahrum borrowed from Ar

mahhruq : burnt [hharaqa] Per mahhruq borrowed from Ar

mahhssul : revenue; produce, harvest [hhassala] Aze mehsul, Hin mahsul, Ind mahsul, Per mahhssul, Tur mahsul borrowed from Ar

mahhsus : perceivable; perceived [hhasa] Hin mahsus, Per mahhsus borrowed from Ar

mahhw : destruction; elimination [mahha] Aze mehv, Per mahhw borrowed from Ar

mahhsz : pure, honest [mahhasza] Hin mahz, Per mahhsz borrowed from Ar

mahia : quality, nature; wage [ma] Per mahiyat borrowed from Ar

mahir : clever, skilled [mahara] Hin mahir, Ind mahir, Per maher borrowed from Ar

mahr : dower [Akk machiru (price), Heb mechir, Uga mchr] Hin mahr, Per mahr borrowed from Ar

mai‘ : liquid [ma‘a] Aze maye, Per maye‘, Tur mayi borrowed from Ar

maida : table [from Per]

maidan : place, field [?] Aze meydan, Hin maydan, Per meydan, Tat meidan, Tur meydan borrowed from Ar

mail : inclination, tendency [mala] Aze meyl, Per meil borrowed from Ar

mail : inclined, sloping [mala] Aze maili, Hin mayal, Per ma(y)el borrowed from Ar

maimun : monkey [?] Alb majmun, Aze meymun, Bul majmuna, Hun majom, Gre maimou, Per meymun, Rom maimuta, Ser majmun, Taj maymun, Tat maimil, Tur maymun borrowed from Ar

maimun : happy; blessed [yamin] Per meymun borrowed from Ar

ma‘isha : way of life [‘asha] Per ma‘ishat borrowed from Ar

mait : dead; corpse [mata] Aze meyit, Per mayyet, Swa maiti borrowed from Ar

majal : space, region; possibility; right, power [jala] Hin majal, Per majal borrowed from Ar

majalla : magazine [jalla] Per majalle borrowed from Ar

majana : make jokes [?]

majazi : figurative [jaza] Aze mecazi, Hin majazi, Per majazi borrowed from Ar

majbur : compelled, forced [jabara] Aze mecbur, Hin majbur, Per majbur, Tur mecbur borrowed from Ar

majburi : obligatory, compulsory [jabara] Tat medzhbüri, Tur mecburi borrowed from Ar

majburia : obligation, compulsion [jabara] Per majburiyat, Tur mecburiyet borrowed from Ar

majdhub : enthusiastic [jadhaba] Ind majzub, Per majdhub borrowed from Ar

majhul : unknown [jahila] Aze mechul, Per majhul, Tur mechul borrowed from Ar

majjannan : free of charge [majana] Per majjannan borrowed from Ar

majla : blister [Sem m-g-l, Syr mugla, Gez megl, Amh megel, Tig megel]

majlis : seat; assembly, council [jalasa] Aze meclis, Hau majalisa, Hin majlis, Per majles, Tur meclis borrowed from Ar

majma‘ : assembly; academy [jama‘a] Hin majma, Per majma‘ borrowed from Ar

majmu‘ : all; result, sum; anthology [jama‘a] Ind majmuk, Per majmu‘, Tur mecmu borrowed from Ar

majmu‘a : collected; collection [jama‘a] Aze mecmue, Hin majmua, Per majmu‘e, Tur mecmua borrowed from Ar

majnun : crazy, mad [janna] Hau majanuni, Hin majnun, Ind majnun, Per majnun borrowed from Ar

majran : stream [jara] Per majra borrowed from Ar

majruhh : wounded [jarahha] Hin majruh, Per majruhh borrowed from Ar

ma‘jun : paste; mix containing hemp or opium [‘ajana] Hin majun, Per ma‘jun borrowed from Ar

majus : magician, astrologer [from Per] Ind majusi, Per majus, Swa majusi borrowed from Ar

makan : place [kana] Hin makan, Per makan, Tur mekan borrowed from Ar

makara : deceive [?]

makina : machine [from Ita macchina] Aze makine, Tur makina borrowed from Ar

makir : deceitful, cunning [makara] Hau makiri, Per maker borrowed from Ar

makkana : empower, make suitable [makuna]

makkar : deceitful, cunning [makara] Hin makkar, Per makkar borrowed from Ar

makr : deceit, trickiness [makara] Hin makr, Per makr borrowed from Ar

makruh : detestable, offensive [kariha] Per makruh, Swa makuruhi, Tur mekruh borrowed from Ar

maks : tax [Akk miksu, Heb mekhess (duty)]

maksab : earning, profit [kasaba] Per maksab borrowed from Ar

makshuf : open, unveiled [kashafa] Per makshuf borrowed from Ar

maksur : broken [kasara] Per maksur borrowed from Ar

maktab : school, college [kataba] Aze mekteb, Hin maktab, Ind maktab, Per maktab, Taj maktab, Tat mektep, Tur mektep borrowed from Ar

maktaba : bookshop, library [kataba] Swa maktaba borrowed from Ar

maktub : letter [kataba] Aze mektub, Per maktub, Tur mektup borrowed from Ar

makul : eatable; food [akala] Per makul, Swa maakuli borrowed from Ar

makula : nutriments [akala] Per makulat, Tur mekulat borrowed from Ar

makuna : have power [?]

mal : assets, property, livestock [mauwala] Aze mal, Hin mal, Kyr mal, Per mal, Swa mali, Tur mal, Uzb mol borrowed from Ar

mala : incline, be friendly [cp. Cushitic mol (brother, friend)]

mala : fill [Mal mimli (full), Akk malu, Heb male, Syr mela, JNA milya, Amh mulu, Uga mlu, Phoen ml’ (fill)]

mala : fullness; heap [mala] Per mala borrowed from Ar

mal‘ab : playing field [la‘iba] Per mal‘ab borrowed from Ar

malacha : pull out [Sem m-l-ch, Uga mlhh (drawn)]

ma‘laf : manger [‘alafa] Per ma‘laf borrowed from Ar

malahha : be salty [Sem m-l-hh, Mal melh (salt), Heb melach, Syr melcha, JNA milkha, Uga mlhht]

malaika : angels [laka] Hau malaika, Per malaeke, Swa malaika borrowed from Ar

malaja : suck [Sem m-l-g, Amh meleggege]

malak : angel [laka] Aze melek, Ind malak, Per malak, Tur melek borrowed from Ar

malaka : possess [Akk malku (king), Heb melekh, Syr malka, JNA malka, BAram malka, Sab mlk, Uga mlk, Phoen mlk, Ebl malik] Hau mallaka, Swa miliki borrowed from Ar

malaka : angel [laka] Ind malekat borrowed from Ar

malal : dejection, depression [malla] Hin malal, Per malal borrowed from Ar

ma‘lam : mark; licence plate [‘alima] Per ma‘lam borrowed from Ar

malama : reproach, rebuke [lama] Hin malamat, Per malamat borrowed from Ar

malbas : dress [labisa] Per malbas borrowed from Ar

malfuf : wrapped [laffa] Per malfuf borrowed from Ar

malhhama : slaughter [talahhama] Per malhhame borrowed from Ar

mali : financial [mauwala] Hin mali, Per mali, Tur mali borrowed from Ar

malia : finances, taxes, revenues [mauwala] Aze maliyye, Per maliyyat, Tur maliye borrowed from Ar

malihh : salty; elegant, pretty [malahha] Per malihh borrowed from Ar

malik : king [malaka] Hin malik, Ind malik, Per malek, Tur melik borrowed from Ar

malik : owner [malaka] Aze malik, Hin malik, Per malek, Tur malik borrowed from Ar

malika : queen [malaka] Hin malka, Per maleke, Swa malkia, Tur melike borrowed from Ar

malisa : be smooth [?]

malla : be tired, depressed [?]

mallahh : seaman [from Sum malahh] Hin mallah, Per mallahh borrowed from Ar

malul : depressed, sad [malla] Hin malul, Per malul borrowed from Ar

ma‘lum : known [‘alima] Aze melum, Hin malum, Ind maklum, Per ma‘lum, Tur malum borrowed from Ar

ma‘luma : knowledge, information [‘alima] Aze melumat, Ind maalumat, maklumat, Per ma‘lumat borrowed from Ar

ma‘mal : factory; laboratory [‘amila] Ind maamal, makmal, Per ma‘mal borrowed from Ar

mamarr : corridor [marra] Per mamarr borrowed from Ar

mamlahha : saline [malahha] Tur memleha borrowed from Ar

mamlaka : realm, kingdom; nation, country [malaka] Ind mamlakat, Kyr mamleket, Per mamlakat, Swa mamlaka, Taj mamlakat, Tur memleket borrowed from Ar

mamnu‘ : forbidden [mana‘a] Per mamnu‘, Tur memnu borrowed from Ar

mamnun : grateful; satisfied [manna] Aze memnun, Hin mamnun, Per mamnun borrowed from Ar

ma‘mudia : baptism [‘ammada] Per ma‘mudiyat borrowed from Ar

ma‘mul : customary [‘amila] Hin mamul, Per ma‘mul borrowed from Ar

ma‘mur : inhabited; blooming [‘amura] Hin mamur, Ind makmur, Per ma‘mur borrowed from Ar

man : who [Sem m-y, Mal min, Akk mannu, Heb mi, Syr man, JNA man, Hrs mon, Amh man, Tig men, Uga mn] Per man borrowed from Ar

man‘ : prohibition [mana‘a] Hin mana, Per man‘ borrowed from Ar

mana : assign, provide, supply [Akk manu (count, assign), Heb mana, Ara mena, Uga mut (enumeration)]

mana‘a : forbid, stop [Sem m-n-‘, Heb mana‘ (prevent, restrain), Ara mena‘]

manafi‘ : profits [nafa‘a] Hin munafa borrowed from Ar

manahha : give, spend [Sem m-n-hh, Heb mincha (tribute), Uga mnhh (give a gift)]

ma‘nan : sense, meaning [‘ana] Aze mena, Ful mana, Hau maana, Hin mane, Ind makna, Per ma‘na, Swa maana borrowed from Ar

manar : minaret; lighthouse [nara] Hin minar borrowed from Ar

manara : tower [nara] Aze minare, Ful minaru, Gre minares, Hin minar, Hun minaret, Per manare, Swa mnara, Tat manara, Tur minare borrowed from Ar

ma‘nawi : ideal, moral [‘ana] Aze menevi, Ind maknawi, Per ma‘nawi borrowed from Ar

manchar : nostril [nachara] Per manchar borrowed from Ar

manba‘ : spring, fountain [naba‘a] Aze menbe, Per manba‘, Tur memba borrowed from Ar

mandhur : promised; agreed [nadhara] Hin manzur, Per mandhur borrowed from Ar

mandil : kerchief [from Late Lat mantellum] Per mandil, Tur mindil borrowed from Ar

mandub : representative [nadaba]

mandzar : look, sight, view [nadzara] Hin manzar, Per mandzar, Swa mandhari borrowed from Ar

mandzara : look, vista [nadzara] Per mandzare, Tur manzara borrowed from Ar

manfa‘a : profit [nafa‘a] Aze menfeet, Ind manfaat, Per manfa‘at borrowed from Ar

manfan : exile [nafa] Per manfa borrowed from Ar

manfi : negative [nafa] Aze menfi, Per manfi borrowed from Ar

manhhus : ill-omened [nahhusa] Hin manhus, Per manhhus borrowed from Ar

mani : semen [amnawa] Ful mani, Hau mani, Per mani borrowed from Ar

mani‘ : obstacle [mana‘a] Aze manee, Per mane‘, Tur mani borrowed from Ar

manja : mango [from Tamil man-kay]

manjala : vise [from Gre manganon]

manna : be good, show mercy [?]

manna : make desire [?]

mansub : related; appointed [nasaba] Hin mansub, Per mansub borrowed from Ar

mansuch : cancelled [nasacha] Hin mansukh, Ind mansukh, Per mansuch borrowed from Ar

manttaqa : zone [nattaqa] Per manttaqe borrowed from Ar

manttiq : logic [nattaqa] Aze mentiq, Ind mantik, Per mantteq, Tur mantik borrowed from Ar

manzil : halting place, apartment; stage, state of life [nazala] Aze menzil, Hin manzil, Ind manzil, Per manzel, Swa manzili, Taj manzil, Tur menzil borrowed from Ar

maq‘ad : seat [qa‘ada] Per maq‘ad borrowed from Ar

maqal : word, speech [qala] Per maqal borrowed from Ar

maqala : artice [qala] Aze meqale, Ind makalah, Per maqale, Swa makala, Tat mekale borrowed from Ar

maqam : place, status, rank [qama] Hau makami, Per maqam borrowed from Ar

maqarr : seat; place [qarra] Per maqarr borrowed from Ar

maqas : measure; size [qasa]

maqass : scissors [qassa] Ful mekes, Ser makaze, Swa mkasi, Tur makas borrowed from Ar

maqbara : tomb; cemetery [qabara] Hin makbara, Per maqbare borrowed from Ar

maqbisz : grip, handle [qabasza]

maqbul : accepted, approved [qabila] Hin makbul, Ind makbul, Per maqbul, Tur makbul borrowed from Ar

maqdis : sanctum [qadusa] Per maqdes borrowed from Ar

maqdur : capacity, power [qadara] Hin makdur, Per maqdur borrowed from Ar

maqhan : coffee-house [qahwa]

maqrusz : indebted [qarasza] Hin makruz, Per maqrusz borrowed from Ar

maqssad : aim, intention [qassada] Aze meqsed, Hau makasudi, Hin maksad, Per maqssad, Tat maksat, Tur maksat borrowed from Ar

maqssaf : canteen [qassafa]

maqssud : intended; intent [qassada] Hin maksud, Ind maksud, Per maqssud borrowed from Ar

maqssura : department [qassura]

maqsum : divided [qasama] Hin maksum, Per maqsum borrowed from Ar

maqtul : murdered [qatala] Per maqtul, Tur maktul borrowed from Ar

ma‘qul : reasonable, appropriate [‘aqila] Hin makul, Per ma‘qul borrowed from Ar

ma‘qulia : reasonableness, appropriateness [‘aqila] Hin makuliyat, Per ma‘quliyat borrowed from Ar

mar : man; lord [Mal mara (lady), Akk maru (son), Heb mar (mister), Syr mara (man), JNA mara (master)] Per mar borrowed from Ar

maracha : smear [Heb marach]

marada : rebel [Sem m-r-d, Heb marad, Syr merad]

ma‘raka : battlefield; battle [‘araka] Hin marka, Per ma‘reke borrowed from Ar

maramma : repair [ramma] Hin marammat, Per marammat borrowed from Ar

marana : be flexible [?]

maraq : sauce [Sem m-r-q, Mal meraq, Heb maraq (broth), JNA maraqa, Amh mereq] Per maraq borrowed from Ar

marara : bile, bitterness [marra] Per mararat borrowed from Ar

marasim : custom, rite [rasama] Aze merasim, Per marasem borrowed from Ar

marasz : disease, illness [marisza] Hin maraz, Per marasz, Swa maradhi borrowed from Ar

maratib : steps, grades; storeys [rataba] Hin maratib, Per marateb borrowed from Ar borrowed from Ar

maratta : pluck [Sem m-r-tt, Heb maratt, Syr meratt (despoil)]

mardaqush : marjoram [from Per marzangush]

marfa : port [?]

marham : ointment [?] Alb melhem, Bul mehlem, Per marham, Ser melem, Swa marhamu, Tur melhem borrowed from Ar

marhhaban : welcome [rahhiba] Per marhhaba borrowed from Ar

marhhala : stop, stage (of a trip) [rahhala] Hin marhala, Per marhhale borrowed from Ar

marhhama : compassion [rahhima] Aze merhamet, Per marhhamat, Taj marhamat, Tat merkhemet, Tur merhamet borrowed from Ar

marhhum : deceased [rahhima] Hin marhum, Ind marhum, Per marhhum, Swa marehemu, Tur merhum borrowed from Ar

marasa : practice [?]

marasa : cable [?]

maratta : pluck [Syr meratt (despoil)]

ma‘rasz : exposition [‘arasza] Per ma‘rasz borrowed from Ar

marfu‘ : elevated [rafa‘a] Per marfu‘ borrowed from Ar

ma‘rifa : knowledge [‘arifa] Hin marfat, Per ma‘rifat borrowed from Ar

marin : flexible [marana]

maris : March [from Lat martius]

marisz : ill [marisza] Hin mariz, Per marisz borrowed from Ar

marisza : be ill [Sem m-r-ss, Mal marid (ill), Akk marassu, Syr mera‘, JNA mr’ (feel pain), Meh meresz (illness), Hrs meresz (be ill), Uga mrss]

marj : meadow [Syr marga] Per marj borrowed from Ar

marjan : pearl, coral [from Gre margaron] Per marjan, Swa marijani borrowed from Ar

markab : ship [rakiba] Per markab borrowed from Ar

markaz : center [rakaza] Aze merkez, Hin markaz, Per markaz, Taj markaz, Tur merkez borrowed from Ar

marqad : sleeping place [raqada] Per marqad borrowed from Ar

marqass : dancing [raqassa]

marr : spade [Akk marru, JNA marra]

marra : be bitter [Sem m-r-r, Mal morr (bitter), Akk mararu (be bitter), Heb mar (bitter), Syr marira, JNA marira, Hrs mer, Amh merara, Tig meraret (bile), Uga mr (bitter)]

marra : pass [Mal mar (go), Uga mrr (chase), Amh merra (lead)]

marra : time, occasion [marra] Per marre borrowed from Ar

marrana : exercise [Heb timeron (maneuver)]

marsan : port, anchorage [rasa] Per marsa borrowed from Ar

marssad : observatory [rassada] Per marssad borrowed from Ar

marsz : disease [marisza] Hin marz borrowed from Ar

marszin : pleasing, satisfactory [raszia] Hin marzi, Per marszi borrowed from Ar

martaba : step, rank, grade; level, floor; time [rataba] Aze mertebe, Hin martaba, Per martabe, Tur mertebe borrowed from Ar

marthia : dirge [ratha] Hin marsiya, Per marthiye borrowed from Ar

ma‘ruf : known [‘arifa] Hin maruf, Ind makruf, Per ma‘ruf, Swa maarufu borrowed from Ar

marzuban : marquis [from Per]

masa : evening [ams] Per masa borrowed from Ar

masa : touch, feel [Sem m-s-s, Mal mess, Heb mishesh]

masafa : distance [sawafa] Aze mesafe, Per masafat, Tur mesafe borrowed from Ar

masahha : wipe [Sem m-s-hh, Heb mashach, Syr meshach, JNA mshkh, mishkha (oil, butter), BAram mshch, Sab ms’hh (anoint), Uga msh’hh (smear)]

masaka : hold, seize [Sem m-s-k, Uga mthk]

masala : question, problem [saala] Aze mesele, Ful masala, Hau matsala, Hin masla, Ind masalah, Per masale, Tur mesele borrowed from Ar

maschara : joker, clown; masquerade [sachira] Hin maskhara, Per maschare borrowed from Ar

masdud : barred; restricted [sadda] Per masdud borrowed from Ar

mash : vetch, pulse [from Per]

masha : go, walk [Mal mexa]

mashahha : rub in, anoint [masahha]

mash‘al : torch [sha‘ala] Hin mashal, Per mash‘al borrowed from Ar

mashaqqa : toil, difficulty [shaqqa] Hin mashakkat, Ind masyakat, Per mashaqqat borrowed from Ar

mashghala : work [shaghala] Aze mesgele, Per mashghale, Tur mesgale borrowed from Ar

mashghul : occupied, busy [shaghala] Aze mesgul, Hin mashgul, Per mashghul, Tur mesgul borrowed from Ar

mash’had : scene; site of burial [shahida] Per mash’had borrowed from Ar

mas’hhuq : crushed; powder [sahhaqa] Per mas’hhuq borrowed from Ar

mash’hur : famous, renowned [shahara] Aze meshur, Hau mashahuri, Hin mash’hur, Ind masyhur, Per mash’hur, Swa mashuhuri borrowed from Ar

mashi : walking; guideline [masha] Per mashi borrowed from Ar

mashia : cattle [masha]

mashkuk : doubtful [shakka] Hin mashkuk, Per mashkuk borrowed from Ar

mashq : practice; sample, copy [?] Hin mashk, Per mashq borrowed from Ar

mashquq : burst [shaqqa]

mashriq : east [sharaqa] Hin mashrik, Ind masyrik, Per mashreq, Swa mashariki borrowed from Ar

mashru‘ : legitimate; striped cloth [shara‘a] Hin mashru, Per mashru‘ borrowed from Ar

mashrub : drink [sharaba] Per mashrub, Tur mesrup borrowed from Ar

mashruba : drinks [sharaba] Per mashrubat, Tur mesrubat borrowed from Ar

ma‘shuq : beloved [‘ashiqa] Hin mashuk, Ind maksyuk, Per ma‘shuq borrowed from Ar

ma‘shuqia : loveliness [‘ashiqa] Hin mashukiyat, Per ma‘shuqiyat borrowed from Ar

mashwara : consultation; advice [shauwara] Hin mashvira, Ind musyawarat, Per mashwarat borrowed from Ar

mashwi : roasted [shawa]

masihh : anointed one [masahha] Ful almasihu, Hin masih, Ind masah, Per masihh borrowed from Ar

masihhi : Christian [masahha] Hin masihi, Per masihhi borrowed from Ar

masir : route [sara] Per masir borrowed from Ar

masjid : mosque [sajada] Hin masjid, Ind masjid, Per masjed, Swa msikiti, Taj masjid, Tur mescit borrowed from Ar

maskan : dwelling [sakana] Per maskan, Swa maskani, Tur mesken borrowed from Ar

masmaka : fishmonger [samak]

masnad : prop; cushion [sanada] Hin masnad, Per masnad borrowed from Ar

masnun : cut [sanna]

masrahh : grazing field; stage; theater [ssarihha]

masrahhia : theater piece [ssarihha]

masrur : glad [sarra] Per masrur borrowed from Ar

mass : suction [massa] Per massa borrowed from Ar

mass’hhaf : book [ssahhafa] Per masshhaf, Swa msahafu borrowed from Ar

massa : suck [Sem m-ss, Heb matzatz, JNA myss, Uga mss]

mass‘ad : ascension [ssa‘ida] Per mass‘ad borrowed from Ar

massaff : position; phalanx; line, row [ssaffa] Per massaf, Swa msafa borrowed from Ar

massahh : health spa [ssahha]

massahha : sanatorium [ssahha]

massala : get sour (milk) [?]

massalahh : benefit; ingredient, material [ssalahha] Hin masalah, Per massalehh borrowed from Ar

massalla : prayer rug [ssalla] Hin musalla, Ind masala, Per massalla borrowed from Ar

massara : build, settle [Heb Mitzraim (Egypt), Uga mssrm]

massarif : expenses [ssarafa] Per massaref borrowed from Ar

massdar : source [ssadara] Per massdar borrowed from Ar

massfan : refinery [ssafa]

massir : intestine [?]

massl : whey; serum [massala]

masslahha : benefit, interest; advice, consultation; reconcilation [ssalahha] Aze meslahet, Hin maslahat, Per masslahhat, Swa masilahi, Taj maslihat borrowed from Ar

massna‘ : factory; facility [ssana‘a] Per massna‘ borrowed from Ar

Massr : Egypt [Missr] Ind Masir, Per Messr borrowed from Ar

massraf : use, purpose; cost, expense [ssarafa] Hin masraf, Per massraf, Swa masurufu borrowed from Ar

massrif : bank [ssarafa]

massruf : engaged, used, occupied [ssarafa] Hin masruf, Per massruf borrowed from Ar

ma‘ssum : protected; innocent [‘assama] Hin masum, Per ma‘ssum borrowed from Ar

massza : bur, ache [?]

mastur : hidden [from Gre mysterion] Ind mastur, Per mastur, Tur mestir borrowed from Ar

masul : responsible [saala] Aze mesul, Per masul, Tur mesul borrowed from Ar

masulia : responsibility [saala] Per masuliyat, Tur mesuliyet borrowed from Ar

masza : carry on, pass [?]

maszagha : chew [?]

maszara : get sour (milk) [massala]

maszarra : harm, damage [szarra] Hin mazarrat, Per maszarrat, Swa madhara borrowed from Ar

maszbutt : strong, secured; firm, reliable [szabatta] Hin mazbut, Per maszbutt, Swa madhubuti borrowed from Ar

maszin : past [masza] Hin mazi, Per maszi borrowed from Ar

maszmun : warranted; sense, content, intent [szamina] Hin mazmun, Per maszmun, Swa madhumuni borrowed from Ar

mat : dead; defeated [mata] Hin mat, Ind mat, Per mat borrowed from Ar

mata : die [Sem m-w-t, Akk matu, Mal miet, Heb met, Syr mith, JNA myth, Ara mwt, Hrs mot, Amh mote, Tig mote, Uga mwt]

mata : when [LiAr aimta, Mal meta, Akk mati, Heb matai, Amh metshe, Uga mat (what)]

mata‘a : carry off [?]

mata‘a : make enjoy [?]

mata‘ib : complaints; troubles [ta‘iba]

matam : mourning, mournful [?] Aze matem, Hin matam, Per matam, Tat matem, Tur matem borrowed from Ar

mathal : example; saying, proverb, parable, fable; problem [mathala] Aze misal, Ful misalu, Hau misali, Hin masal, Swa mithali, Per mathal, methal, Tat misal, mesele, Tur masal, mesele borrowed from Ar

mathala : compare [Sem m-th-l, Akk mashalu (be equal), Heb mashal (example), JNA mathala, Amh mesale, mesele (look like)] Tur masal borrowed from Ar

mathalan : for example [mathala] Hin maslan, Per mathalan borrowed from Ar

mathana : bladder [Akk shanu (urinate), Heb shin, Gez shena, Amh shenne, Tig shena, Uga tyn]

mat’hhaf : museum [?]

mathnawi : couplets, poems [thana] Hin masnavi, Per mathnawi borrowed from Ar

mathni : doubled (up) [thana]

matin : firm [matuna] Per matin borrowed from Ar

matjar : trading; shop [tajara] Per matjar borrowed from Ar

matn : back [Sem m-t-n, Akk matnu (sinew), Heb moten (loins), Hrs motn (flesh of back), Uga mtn (sinew), Ebl matnu (hip)] Per matn borrowed from Ar

matruk : abandoned, obsolete [taraka] Per matruk, Tur metruk borrowed from Ar

matta : pull, stretch [Sem m-tt-tt, Hrs mett]

mattala : hammer out [Heb mettil (bar)]

matt‘am : restaurant, inn [tta‘ama]

mattar : rain [Sem m-tt-r, Heb mattar, Syr methra, JNA mittra, Uga mttr] Per mattar borrowed from Ar

mattar : airport [ttara]

mattatt : elastic [matta]

mattba‘a : printing house [ttaba‘a] Hau madabaa, Hin matba, Per mattba‘e, Tur matbaa borrowed from Ar

mattbach : kitchen [ttabacha] Aze metbex, Per mattbach borrowed from Ar

mattbu‘a : press, printed matter [ttaba‘a] Aze metbuat, Hin matbua, Per mattbu‘at, Tat metbugat, Tur matbua(t) borrowed from Ar

matthala : perform [mathala]

matt’hhun : ground [ttahhana] Per matt’hhun borrowed from Ar

mattia : tool; pack animal [Heb matte (staff), Tig mett (beat), Uga mtt (staff), Ebl mattiu] Per mattiyat borrowed from Ar

mattlab : object, intention, meaning [ttalaba] Hin matlab, Per mattlab borrowed from Ar

mattlub : desired, sought [ttalaba] Per mattlub borrowed from Ar

matuna : be firm [matn]

mauhiba : gift [wahaba] Ind muhabbat, Per mouhebat borrowed from Ar

mauhuma : phantasy; superstition [wahama] Aze mövhumat, Per mouhumat borrowed from Ar

mau‘id : term [wa‘ada] Per mou‘ed borrowed from Ar

mauj : wave [Sem m-w-g, Mal mewga; cp. Amh moged] Hin mauj, Per mauj borrowed from Ar

maujud : existing, present [wajada] Aze mövcud, Hin maujud, Ind maujud, Per moujud, Tur mevcut borrowed from Ar

maujudia : existence [wajada] Per moujudiyat, Tur mevcudiyet borrowed from Ar

maulan : master, leader; mullah [walia] Hin maula, Per moula borrowed from Ar

maulana : our master [walia] Per moulana, Swa maulana borrowed from Ar

maulawi : dervish; learned man [walia] Hin maulvi, Per moulawi borrowed from Ar

maulid : birthday [walada] Tur mevlit borrowed from Ar

maulud : birthday [walada] Ind maulud, Per moulud, Tur mevlut borrowed from Ar

maulud : born, newborn [walada] Hin maulud, Per moulud borrowed from Ar

ma‘una : help [‘awana] Per ma‘unat borrowed from Ar

mauqi‘ : site, position; incident; opportunity [waqa‘a] Aze mövqe, Hin mauka, Per mouqe‘, Tur mevki borrowed from Ar

mauqif : stop; station [waqafa] Per mouqef borrowed from Ar

mauquf : stopped; arrested [waqafa] Hin maukuf, Per mouquf, Tur mevkuf borrowed from Ar

maurid : case; object; resource [warada] Per moured borrowed from Ar

mauruth : inherited [waritha] Hin maurus, Per mouruth borrowed from Ar

mausim : season [wasama] Aze mövsüm, Hin mausam, Ind musim, Per mousem, Swa msimu, Tur mevsim borrowed from Ar

mausum : named [samma] Hin mausum, Per mousum borrowed from Ar

mauszi‘ : place, point; position; small town [wasza‘a] Hin mauza, Per mousze‘ borrowed from Ar

mauszu‘ : placed; theme [wasza‘a] Aze mövzu, Hin mauzun, Per mouszu‘, Tur mevzu borrowed from Ar

maut : death [mata] Hin maut, Per mout, Swa mauti borrowed from Ar

mauttin : homeland [wattana] Per mouttan borrowed from Ar

mauwala : finance [JNA mal (assets), Meh mol (riches), Hrs melet (dowry), Soq mal (riches)]

mauz : banana [from Skt mauca] Ind mauz, Per mouz, Tur muz borrowed from Ar

mawadd : pus, matter [madda] Hin mavad, Per mawadd borrowed from Ar

mawadda : love [wadda] Per mawaddat borrowed from Ar

mawajib : sums due [wajaba] Hin mavajib, Per mawajeb borrowed from Ar

mawashi : domestic animals, cattle [masha] Hin maveshi, Per mawashi borrowed from Ar

mawi : watery; blue [ma] Aze mavi, Gre mabys, Tur mavi borrowed from Ar

mayu : May [from Lat maius]

mayyit : dead [mata] Per mayyet borrowed from Ar

maza : separate; award [?]

mazahha : joke [?]

mazaja : blend [Sem m-z-g, Heb mizzeg, Syr mezag, Uga msk]

mazaqa : tear apart [?]

mazar : tomb, pilgrims' destination [zara] Hin mazar, Per mazar borrowed from Ar

mazharia : vase [zahara]

mazhha : joke [mazahha]

mazia : advantage; privilege [?]

mazid : completed; more [zada] Per mazid borrowed from Ar

mazra‘a : sowing field [zara‘a] Per mazra‘e borrowed from Ar

mazut : fuel [from Rus]

mia : hundred [Mal mija, Akk meatu, Heb mea, Syr maa, JNA imma, Amh meto, Uga mit, Phoen m’t] Swa mia borrowed from Ar

mi‘ad : term, period [wa‘ada] Hin miyad, Per mi‘ad borrowed from Ar

mi‘an : innards, guts [ma‘a]

michadda : pillow [?] Per mechadde, Spa almohada borrowed from Ar

mida : measure [Sem m-d-d, Akk madadu, Heb madad, mida, Phoen mdd, mdt]

mi‘da : stomach [?] Per me‘de borrowed from Ar

midad : ink, oil; pencil [?] Per medad borrowed from Ar

midhwad : manger [Sem d-w-d, Akk dudu (vessel, cauldron), Heb dud, Syr duda, Uga dd]

miftahh : key [fatahha] Per meftahh borrowed from Ar

mighnattis : magnet [from Gre magnetos] Hin miknatis borrowed from Ar

mighzal : spindle [ghazala] Per meghzal borrowed from Ar

mihhna : trial; punishment, torture; toil; hell [mahhana] Hin mehnat, Per mehhnat, Tat mikhnet, Tur mihnet borrowed from Ar

mihhrab : sanctuary [hhariba] Per mehhrab, Tur mihrep borrowed from Ar

mihhwar : rolling-pin; axis [hhara] Per mehhwar borrowed from Ar

mijann : shield [junna] Per mejann borrowed from Ar

mil : mile [from Lat mille]

milad : birth [walada] Per milad, Tur milat borrowed from Ar

milahha : navigation [mallahh] Per melahhat borrowed from Ar

mil‘aqa : ladle, spoon [la‘iqa] Per mel‘aqe borrowed from Ar

milatt : plaster [Sem l-tt, Heb melett (cement)] Per melatt borrowed from Ar

milhh : salt [malahha] Per melhh borrowed from Ar

miliar : ten million [from Fre milliard]

miliun : million [from Fre million]

milk : possession [malaka] Hin milk, Per melk borrowed from Ar

milkia : property [malaka] Aze mülkiyyet, Hin milkiyat, Per melkiyat, Tur mülkiyet borrowed from Ar

milla : nation [Heb mila (word), Syr malel (speak), meltha (word), JNA millita (nation)] Aze millet, Hin millat, Per mellat, Tat millet, Tur millet borrowed from Ar

milli : national [milla] Per melli, Tat milli, Tur milli borrowed from Ar

millia : nationality [milla] Per melliyat, Tat millete, Tur milliyet borrowed from Ar

mim : the letter m [Sem m-w, Heb mem] Per mim borrowed from Ar

mi‘mar : architect [‘amara] Aze memar, Per me‘mar, Tur mimar borrowed from Ar

min : from [Mal minn, Heb min, Syr men, JNA min, BAram min, Ara mn, Phoen mn] Per men borrowed from Ar

mina : port [?]

minara : tower [nara] Tur minare, Swa mnara borrowed from Ar

minassa : stage, grand-stand [nassa] Per manasse borrowed from Ar

minbar : pulpit [nabara] Ful mimbar, Per menbar, Swa mimbari, Tur mimber borrowed from Ar

mindil : kerchief [mandil] Tur mindil borrowed from Ar

minfach : bellows [nafacha] Per menfach borrowed from Ar

minhaj : method [nahaja] Hau manhaja, Per menhaj borrowed from Ar

minjal : sickle [from Sum nigalla]

minna : kindness; gratitude, entreaty [manna] Hin minnat, Per mennat, Taj minnat, Tur minnet borrowed from Ar

minqar : beak [naqara] Per menqar borrowed from Ar

minshafa : towel; handkerchief [nashafa]

minshar : saw [nashara] Per menshar borrowed from Ar

minszada : table [naszada]

minttaqa : zone [nattaqa] Tur mintaka borrowed from Ar

miqdar : measure, amount, quantity [qadara] Aze miqdar, Hin mikdar, Per meqdar borrowed from Ar

miqdhaf : oar [qadafa]

miqla‘ : sling [qala‘a]

miqrasz : pincers; scissors [qarasza] Per meqrasz borrowed from Ar

miqyas : scale; measuring instrument [qasa] Per meqyas borrowed from Ar

mira : mirror [ra]

miraran : passingly, temporarily [marra]

mirath : inheritance [waritha] Hin miras, Per mirath, Tat miras, Tur miras borrowed from Ar

mirfa‘ : jack, hoist [rafa‘a]

mirfaq : elbow [irtafaqa] Per merfaq borrowed from Ar

mirhhasz : washroom [rahhasza]

mirra : bile [marra]

Mirrich : Mars [?] Ful Mirriha, Ind Marikh, Per Merrich, Tur Merih borrowed from Ar

mirsa : anchor [rasa] Per mersat borrowed from Ar

mirssad : observation point; telescope [rassada] Per merssad borrowed from Ar

mirwahha : fan [rahha]

misafir : guest [safara] Tur misafir borrowed from Ar

misahha : surface [masahha]

misalla : needle [Akk ssillu (thorn)]

misann : grindstone [sanna] Per mesann borrowed from Ar

mishmish : apricot [Heb mishmesh]

miskin : wretched [Sem sh-k-n, Akk mushkenu, Heb missken, Syr meskina, JNA miskena, Amh meskin] Ful miskin, Hau miskini, Hin miskin, Ind miskin, Per meskin, Swa maskini, Tat mesken, Tur miskin borrowed from Ar

mismar : nail [sammara] Aze mismar, Per mesmar, Swa msumari borrowed from Ar

miss‘ad : lift [ssa‘ida]

mi‘ssam : knuckle [?] Per me‘ssam borrowed from Ar

missbahh : lantern [ssabuhha] Ind misbah, Per messbahh borrowed from Ar

missdam : bumper [ssadama]

miss’har : melting fuse [ssahara]

Missr : Egypt [massara] Ful Misra, Hau Masar, Hin Misr, Swa Misri, Tur Misir borrowed from Ar

misttar : line; liner [sattara] Per mesttar borrowed from Ar

miszaccha : pump [szaccha]

miszrab : bat; plectrum [szaraba] Hin mizrab, Per meszrab borrowed from Ar

mithal : example [mathala] Hin misal, Ind misal, Per methal, Tur misal borrowed from Ar

mithaq : treaty [wathiqa] Per mithaq borrowed from Ar

mithlama : the same way [mathala + ma]

mitr : meter [from Eng meter]

mi‘ttaf : cloak [‘attafa]

mitt’hhana : mill [ttahhana]

mizab : eaves [from Per miz-ab]

mizaj : mixture; temperament [mazaja] Hin mizaj, Per mazaj, Tur mizac borrowed from Ar

mizan : scales [wazana] Hin mizan, Per mizan, Mal mizana, Swa mizani borrowed from Ar

mizar : cloak [azara]

mizmar : flute [zamara] Per mezmar borrowed from Ar

mu‘abbad : paved [‘abbada]

muacchar : later [acchara] Per moacchar, Tur muahhar borrowed from Ar

mu‘adda : equipment [‘adda]

muaddib : teacher [aduba] Per moaddeb borrowed from Ar

muaddhin : caller [adhina] Alb myezin, Hin muazzan, Per moaddhen, Tur müezzin borrowed from Ar

mu‘adil : equal; moderate [‘adala] Per mo‘adel borrowed from Ar

mu‘af : free, liberated; forgiven [‘afa] Hin muaf, Per mo‘af, Tur muaf borrowed from Ar

mu‘afa : exemption [‘afa]

mu‘afan : forgiven; exempt [‘afa] Hin maf borrowed from Ar

mu‘afia : release [‘afa] Per mo‘afiyat, Tur muafiyet borrowed from Ar

mu‘ahada : promise; agreement [‘ahada] Hin muahida, Per mo‘ahade borrowed from Ar

muajjir : tenant [ajara] Per mujer borrowed from Ar

mu‘alija : healing; treatment [‘alaja] Aze müalice, Per mo‘alaje borrowed from Ar

mu‘alla : high [‘ala] Hin mualla, Per mo‘alla borrowed from Ar

mu‘allaba : can, conserve [‘allaba]

mu‘allaq : hanging, moot [‘aliqa] Per mo‘allaq borrowed from Ar

muallif : author [allafa] Aze müellif, Per moallef, Tur müellif borrowed from Ar

mu‘allim : teacher [‘alima] Aze müellim, Hin muallim, Per mo‘allem, Swa mwalimu, Taj muallim, Tur muallim borrowed from Ar

mu‘allima : teacher [‘alima] Per mo‘alleme, Taj muallima borrowed from Ar

mu‘amala : affair, business [‘amila] Hau maamala, Hin mamla, muamle, Per mo‘amale borrowed from Ar

mu‘amma : riddle [‘amma] Hin muamma, Per mo‘amma borrowed from Ar

muannath : feminine [anutha] Per moannath, Tur müen

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